147 Scientifc reports of fermented food

Record 1 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-11-B1405
TI: Purification and characterisation of an extracellular fructan beta-fructosidase from a Lactobacillus pentosus strain isolated from fermented fish.
AU: Paludan-Muller-C; Gram-L; Rattray-FP
PY: 2002
SO: Systematic-and-Applied-Microbiology; 25 (1) 13-20, 31 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: An extracellular fructan beta-fructosidase (exo-inulinase; EC produced by Lactobacillus pentosus B235 (isolated as part of the dominant microflora from a garlic containing fermented fish product) was purified and characterized. L. pentosus B235 was grown in a chemically-defined medium with inulin as the sole carbohydrate source. The extracellular fructan beta-fructosidase produced was purified to homogeneity from the bacterial culture supernatant by ultrafiltration, anion exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The mol. wt. of the enzyme was estimated to be approx. 126 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme had highest activity for levan (a beta(2Right arrow6)-linked fructan), but also hydrolysed garlic extract (a beta(2Right arrow1)-linked fructan with beta(2Right arrow6)-linked fructosyl side chains), 1,1,1-kestose, 1,1-kestose, 1-kestose, inulin (beta(2Right arrow1)-linked fructans) and sucrose at 60, 45, 39, 12, 9 and 3%, respectively, of the activity observed for levan. Melezitose, raffinose and stachyose were not hydrolysed by the enzyme. The fructan beta-fructosidase was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, EDTA, Fe-2-+, Zn-2-+ and Co-2-+, whereas Mn-2-+ had no effect; effects of Cu ions are also reported. The first 20 N-terminal amino acids was sequenced. The enzyme had temp. and pH optima at 25 degree C and 5.5, respectively. Concn. of up to 12% NaCl, had effect on enzyme activity.

Record 2 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-10-R0735
TI: Chemical composition and microbiological changes during spontaneous and starter culture fermentation of enam ne-setaakye, a west African fermented fish-carbohydrate product.
AU: Asiedu-M; Sanni-AI
PY: 2002
SO: European-Food-Research-and-Technology; 215 (1) 8-12, 24 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Enan ne-setaakye, a fermented fish-carbohydrate dish, was made from minced fish flesh (75%), yam (20.5%), onions (1%), ginger (1%) and salt (2.5%). The ingredients were mixed, and the mixture was divided into 2 portions which were rolled into 2-cm diam. balls. The balls were allowed to ferment naturally for 120 h at ambient temp. (30 plus/minus 1 degree C) or inoculated with starter and fermented for 72 h at 30 degree C. At the end of fermentation, 113 isolates belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Debaromyces and Candida were obtained from the naturally fermented product. L. brevis and P. pentosaceus were the dominant species, with 24 and 19% occurrence respectively, while Candida species occurred least (3%). Changes in viable count of the microflora showed predominance of lactic acid bacteria from 48 h of fermentation (5.8 x 10-8 cfu/g) to the end (2.3 x 10-1-0 cfu/g). Enterobacteriaceae, detected at 10-3 cfu/g at 0 h, were not detectable after 72 h. Fungi were not isolated, while yeasts became detectable from 72 h, reaching 10-3 cfu/g at the end of fermentation. With a shorter fermentation period of 72 h with a lactic acid bacteria count of 10-1-0 cfu/g, no detectable Enterobacteriaceae or fungi and a yeast population of 10-3 cfu/g were obtained when fermentation was carried out using L. brevis and P. pentosaceus as starter cultures. A pH level of 4.3, 3.1% titratable acidity and 2.1 salt content were obtained in starter culture-fermented product. There were significant differences in moisture and free fatty acid contents of naturally and starter culture-fermented samples, but protein content (16%) was not significantly different. Sensory evaluation showed consumer preference for samples which had been steamed for 15 min.

Record 3 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-10-R0683
TI: Chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of fermented fish products from Sardinella sp. in Nigeria.
AU: Achinewhu-SC; Oboh-CA
PY: 2002
SO: Journal-of-Aquatic-Food-Product-Technology; 11 (2) 53-59, 14 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Composition and sensory properties of fermented sardinella (Sardinella sp.) were investigated with a view to using it as a flavouring for soups and stews and as a protein source in infant foods. Fresh sardinella were subjected to `chance inoculation' (natural) fermentation with or without treatment with spices at room temp. (30 plus/minus 2 degree C). Fermented products were analysed for chemical and microbiological composition and sensory properties. For unfermented and fermented products, moisture content was 73 and 70%, fat content was 7 and 8% and crude protein content was 16 and 18%, respectively. Fermentation caused a slight decrease in trimethylamine from 20 to 18 kg/100 g in unfermented and fermented products. Peroxide value was 6 mEq/kg for fermented products and 8 mEq/kg for unfermented products. A consistent decrease in pH from 6.5 to 4.3 and a corresponding increase in titratable acidity from 0.69 to 1.84 NaOH/100 kg was observed during fermentation. Fermentation caused a slight decrease in total viable count of microorganisms, which ranged from 250 to 380 cfu/g for fermented and unfermented products. Sensory evaluation showed that fish fermented in 10% salt solution had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher scores for flavour and overall acceptability than those for products fermented in a 15% salt solution.

Record 4 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-08-R0536
TI: Characteristics of fish sauce made from Pacific whiting and surimi by-products during fermentation stage.
AU: Lopetcharat-K; Park-JW
PY: 2002
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 67 (2) 511-516, 31 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Potential for making high quality fish sauce from Pacific whiting and its by-products was studied. Fermentation conditions and physicochemical transformations during fermentation were also investigated. The fermentation conditions for producing Pacific whiting fish sauce were static atmospheric fermentation with 25% salt at 50 degree C. The enzymes effective in fermentation were heat stable and salt tolerant. Fermentation at 50 degree C gave higher yields than at 35 degree C. Total nitrogen content of whole fish fermented at 50 degree C reached levels equivalent to those of commercial fish sauce before 15 days, supporting the strong degradation effects of Pacific whiting enzymes at earlier stages. Levels of soluble solids and relative gravity also reached those of the commercial sample at 60 days. However, colour value of unripened fish sauce was far from that of commercial fish sauce, indicating that ripening may be necessary to develop proper colour. Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Micrococcus were the predominant microorganisms during fermentation.

Record 5 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-07-R0490
TI: Application of multi-enzymic method in fermented fish sauce production from Harengula zunasi's offal.
AU: Deng-Shanggui; Peng-Zhiyang; Yang-Ping; Xia-Xingzhou
PY: 2002
SO: Food-&-Fermentation-Industries; 28 (2) 32-36, 8 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Fermented fish sauce was produced from the offal of Harengula zunasi, using an enzymic method. The offal was treated with alkaline and neutral proteinase, followed by flavorase. Optimal conditions included pH 7.0, 50 degree C, treatment with1.5% alkaline proteinase and 1.5% neutral proteinase for 60 min, and treatment with 2.0% flavorase for 60 min. The fermented fish sauce produced by this method has a total amino acid content of 40.3%. Its content of amino acids making a positive contribution to flavour (including Glu, Asp, Gly, Ala, Pro and Ser) is 49%. The sauce also contains 19 and 11 mg/g total and amino N, respectively.

Record 6 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11AN: 2002-05-R0353
TI: Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations.
AU: Paludan-Muller-C; Madsen-M; Sophanodora-P; Gram-L; Moller-PL
PY: 2002
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 73 (1) 61-70, 33 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Effects during fermentation of plaa-som (a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup, and sometimes toasted rice) of NaCl concn. (6, 7, 9 and 11%) on pH decrease and microflora composition were investigated. Also, phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used in the identification of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast present during plaa-som fermentation. Results showed that a rapid pH decrease occurred in low-NaCl (6 and 7%) batches of plaa-som (from pH 6 to 4.5), whereas a slow or no decrease in pH occurred in high-NaCl (9 and 11%) batches. All batches, apart from the 11% NaCl batch where microbial counts were 1-2 log lower, experienced increases in counts of LAB (10-8-10-9 cfu/g) and yeasts (10-7-5 x 10-7 cfu/g). LAB isolates were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus alimentarius/farciminis, Weisella confusa, Lb. plantarum and Lactocococcus garviae (only isolated from high-NaCl batches), while 95% of the yeasts were identified as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. A NaCl level of 9% was observed to delay plaa-som fermentation due to inhibition of LAB growth. It is proposed that Z. rouxii may contribute positively to the flavour development of plaa-som, although its growth had no influence on fermentation rate.

Record 7 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-05-R0290
TI: Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product.
AU: Paludan-Muller-C; Valyasevi-R; Huss-HH; Gram-L
PY: 2002
SO: Journal-of-Applied-Microbiology; 92 (2) 307-314, 31 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product (som-fak) was established, and differentiation was made between garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at the strain level. Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. The pH decreased to 4.5 after 2 days of fermentation; however, when garlic was omitted from the mixture, acidification was lacking. LAB predominated, and approx. one third of 234 isolated strains fermented garlic and inulin (the carbohydrate reserve in garlic). These strains were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus and L. plantarum. RAPD analysis revealed one major RAPD type (29 strains) isolated from all stages of fermentation. It is concluded that garlic is essential for acidification of som-fak, and that garlic-fermenting strains constitute a significant, homogeneous part of the LAB flora.

Record 8 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-04-T0260
TI: An overview of recent research on MSG: sensory applications and safety.
AU: Ninomiya-K
PY: 2001
SO: Food-Australia; 53 (12) 546-549, 57 ref.
DT: Review
AB: Flavour properties, safety and physiological effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) are reviewed. Aspects considered include: the relationship between glutamate contents of foods and umami flavour; occurrence of free glutamate in natural foods (meat, poultry, sea foods, vegetables, cheese, milk); glutamate levels in traditional processed foods (Marmite and other conc. extracts, soy sauce, fermented fish products, fish sauce); changes in glutamate concn. during ripening of fruits and cheese and maturation of ham; contribution of glutamate to the flavour profiles of foods; safety evaluation of MSG (Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, effects on brain function); and the role of MSG in the promotion of healthy eating.

Record 9 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-04-R0271
TI: Use of exogenous enzymes to elaborate the Roman fish sauce garum.
AU: Aquerreta-Y; Astiasaran-I; Bello-J
PY: 2002
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 82 (1) 107-112, 48 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Underutilized by-products of the fishing industry were used in the preparation of a fermented fish sauce with nutritional and sensory properties similar to garum, a fish sauce consumed in ancient Rome. The raw materials were frozen tuna (Tunnus thynnus) liver and eviscerated mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Of the commercial enzyme preparations tested (Fungal Proteinase P31000, Alcalase 2.4L, Kojizyme MG, Trypsin PTN 3.0 and Neutrase 0.5L) Neutrase gave the greatest yield (ml liquid/100 g initial mixture) and was used in all further experiments. Fermentation was carried out at 35-37 degree C, in the presence of 10% salt, 1 g/100 g oregano, coriander and thyme, and 0.001 g/100 g BHA and BHT, for 48 h, followed by filtration and dilution with a guar gum solution. The resulting sauce contained 21 mg/g N, 10% fat and 5.9% salt. Analysis of its fatty acid profile revealed high levels of oleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, at 15.1, 4.2 and 11.3 g/100 g fat, respectively, resulting in a high PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratio (0.98) and a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio. In comparison, traditional Korean fermented fish sauce (a type of nuoc mam) was found to contain 0.06% fat and 16.8% salt, although its N content was similar to that of garum.

Record 10 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2002-01-A0046
TI: Characterization of the triterpenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene and its isomers in food-associated bacteria.
AU: Breithaupt-DE; Schwack-W; Wolf-G; Hammes-WP
PY: 2001
SO: European-Food-Research-and-Technology; 213 (3) 231-233, 13 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Occurrence of stereoisomers of the parent all-trans-configured triterpenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene in Gram positive bacteria which have importance in food fermentation processes was investigated. 3 strains of Staphylococcus carnosus obtained from fermented fish and Italian salami, Lactobacillus plantarum LTH 4936 from bakers yeast, Enterococcus sulfureus DSM 6905-T from vegetables and E. mundtii DSM 4838-T from soil produced the predominant all trans-isomer and also 7 cis-isomers of 4,4'-diaponeurosporene. Results revealed triterpenoid carotenoids in staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria, which differ from those formed in S. aureus. Possible activities of 4,4'-diaponeurosporene in bacteria are discussed.

Record 11 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2001-08-R0612
TI: Microflora of fish nukazuke made in Ishikawa, Japan.
AU: Kuda-T; Miyamoto-H; Sakajiri-M; Ando-K; Yano-T
PY: 2001
SO: Nippon-Suisan-Gakkaishi; 67 (2) 296-301, 13 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: 34 fermented fish in bran paste (nukazuke, salinity; 10-15%) products made by 13 factories in Japan were analysed for microbial composition. The predominant bacterial group was halophilic lactococci, however samples obtained from different factories or different fish (including sardine, Pacific herring, mackerel, puffer fish and yellowtail) showed wide variation in numbers of these bacteria ( less than 10-2-10-7 cfu/g). The numbers of halophilic or osmophilic yeasts ranged from less than 10-2 to 10-6 cfu/g. In 3 samples, aerobic cocci and yeasts were dominant rather than lactococci. The main organic acid determined in products was lactic acid; the lactic acid concn. also differed (0.1-1.7 g/100 g) between products from different factories and fish. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in nukazuke products ranged from 50 to 230 mg/100 g.

Record 12 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2001-06-R0436
TI: Changes in proximate composition and extractive components of rice-bran-fermented mackerel heshiko during processing.
AU: Itou-K; Akahane-Y
PY: 2000
SO: Nippon-Suisan-Gakkaishi; 66 (6) 1051-1058, 21 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Compositional changes occurring during processing of heshiko (a fermented fish product made from mackerel) were studied. Heshiko was produced from fresh mackerel by salting for one wk and subsequent pickling in rice-bran mixture for 7 months. During the salting period, fish were strongly dehydrated and decreased in body wt. by up to 12% due to salt penetration. During this period, lipid was mostly retained in the fish, although a small amount of protein was eluted. During fermentation in rice-bran mixture, sugars permeated from rice-bran into the fish and ash and lipid levels in the fish slightly decreased; protein levels did not vary during fermentation. Throughout salting and fermentation, most free amino acids and peptides increased markedly; however His levels showed a sharp decrease. The increase in levels of Glu, Asp, Gly, Ala, Val, Ile, Leu, and low mol. peptides suggested that these components might contribute to the characteristic flavour of heshiko. Nucleotides, such as IMP decreased to trace amounts at the early stage of fermentation. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, succinic, and malic acids increased markedly during fermentation, while pH of fish flesh decreased from 6.6 to 5.2.

Record 13 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2001-05-R0353
TI: Quality characteristics of Southeast Asian salt-fermented fish sauces.
AU: Young-Je-Cho; Yeong-Sun-Im; Hee-Yeol-Park; Yeung-Joon-Choi
PY: 2000
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Fisheries-Society; 33 (2) 98-102, 14 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Composition of 13 types of Southeast Asian salt-fermented fish sauce (patis, nuocmam and nampla of various types) was evaluated. Fish used included mackerel, silver pomfret and anchovy. Moisture averaged 60.6-72.8%, ash 18.2-25.8%, crude protein 0.9-13.7% and volatile basic N compounds 14.1-338.6 mg/100 ml. pH values were 4.66-5.91 and salinity 24.1-30.6%; values are also shown for total N, amino N, total free amino acids and total ATP-related compounds. Sauces proved rich in free amino acids such as glutamic acid, lysine, leucine, alanine, aspartic acid, valine and isoleucine.

Record 14 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2001-05-A0770
TI: Partial characterization of lacticin NK24, a newly identified bacteriocin of Lactococcus lactis NK24 isolated from Jeot-gal.
AU: Lee-NK; Paik-HD
PY: 2001
SO: Food-Microbiology; 18 (1) 17-24, 23 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: The bacteriocin lacticin NK24 produced by Lactococcus lactis NK24, isolated from jeot-gal (a high-salt fermented fish product), was identified, partially purified, and partially characterized. Results showed that lacticin NK24 had a relatively broad spectrum of activity against most lactic acid bacteria and several pathogens (including some Gram negative microorganisms). However, lacticin NK24 had no inhibitory activity against a yeast and fungi tested. Treatment with proteinase IX or proteinase XIV led to a complete loss of bacteriocin activity, but no modification of activity was observed when lacticin NK24 was treated with the other enzymes tested (trypsin, proteinase XIII, alpha-chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, proteinase K, alpha-amylase and lipase). Lacticin NK24 proved to be relatively heat stable; inhibitory activity was detected during 30 min heat treatment at 100 degree C. Lacticin NK24 was stable at pH 2.0-9.0, and was unaffected by a range of organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone, toluene, isopropanol and chloroform). The bacteriocin demonstrated a bactericidal mode of action against Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCCM 11324. SDS-PAGE determined that lacticin NK24 had an apparent molecular mass of approx. 3-3.5 kDa. It is concluded that the characteristics of lacticin NK24 make it a potential candidate for use as an antibacterial agent in foods for the control of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.

Record 15 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2001-02-R0167
TI: Changes of components in salt-fermented northern sand lance, Ammodytes personatus sauce during fermentation.
AU: Young-Je-Cho; Yeong-Sun-Im; Keun-Woo-Lee; Geon-Bae-Kim; Yeung-Joon-Choi
PY: 1999
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Fisheries-Society; 32 (6) 693-698, 18 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Changes in composition of salt-fermented fish sauce from northern sand lance (Ammodytes personatus) during fermentation were investigated. Compositional parameters were examined at 1-3 month intervals during 18 months fermentation. Moisture content decreased slightly, but the content of VBN and crude protein, total N, amino N, degree of hydrolysis, and absorbance at 453 nm increased gradually during fermentation; ash content, pH, and salinity showed almost no change. The contents of total N, amino N, and degree of hydrolysis increased sharply until 6-8 months fermentation and then showed a gentle increment. Hypoxanthine and uric acid were the most abundant ATP related compounds, ranging from 83.1% to 92.9%. After 18 months of fermentation, sauces contained high levels of free amino acids such as glutamic acid, alanine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and aspartic acid.

Record 16 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2001-02-R0155
TI: Quality investigation of commercial northern sand lance, Ammodytes personatus sauces.
AU: Young-Je-Cho; Yeong-Sun-Im; Keun-Woo-Lee; Geon-Bae-Kim; Yeung-Joon-Choi
PY: 1999
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Fisheries-Society; 32 (5) 612-617, 16 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Fifteen different commercial salt-fermented fish sauces (CNS) prepared from northern sand lance (Ammodytes personatus) were evaluated for composition and compared with a traditional-style fish sauce (TNS) prepared from the same fish species. CNS sauces contained 66.5-71.0% moisture, 19.3-24.6% ash, 4.7-12.0% crude protein, and the pH and salinity were 5.56-6.47, 24.0-32.9%, respectively. Total N, amino N, total free amino acids and total ATP related compounds were in the ranges 0.781-1.918 g/100 ml, 445.9-1037.9 mg/100 ml, 3258-6562 mg/100 ml and 4.766-8.989 mumol/1 ml, respectively. CNS had higher moisture content, TMAO, TMA and pH, but lower content of crude protein, salinity, total N, amino N, total ATP related compounds, absorbance at 453 nm and total free amino acid than TNS. Both CNS and TNS samples were rich in free amino acids, such as glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid and isoleucine (descending order).

Record 17 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-11-R0799
TI: Implementation of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system to the fish/seafood industry: a review.
AU: Tzouros-NE; Arvanitoyannis-IS
PY: 2000
SO: Food-Reviews-International; 16 (3) 273-325, many ref.
DT: Review
AB: Implementation of HACCP in the sea food industry is reviewed. Aspects covered include: principles of HACCP; problems and difficulties associated with application of HACCP; development of appropriate HACCP strategies; characterization of critical control points; recording systems for HACCP; benefits experienced by companies in the fish industry following HACCP implementation; microbiological quality problems encountered in production of sea foods; microbial pathogens occuring in sea foods; methods for monitoring safety and quality of fish; examples of HACCP application to the production of fresh fish, packaged fish products, smoked and cured sea foods, canned sea foods, fish sticks, shellfish, sea food soup, surimi, fish oils and fermented fish products; use of hygiene procedures in sea food processing; and conclusions.

Record 18 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11AN: 2000-10-R0778
TI: The inhibitory action of spices against pathogens that might be capable of growth in a fish sauce (mehiawah) from the Middle East.
AU: Al-Jedah-JH; Ali-MZ; Robinson-RK
PY: 2000
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 57 (1/2) 129-133, 12 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Inhibitory effects of ingredients (cumin, coriander, mustard, wheat, fennel seeds, black pepper and dried lemon) added during processing of mehiawah (fermented fish sauce) on pathogens (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) that may be potential contaminants of the fish or process plant were investigated. Samples of mehiawah were inoculated with pathogens at a level of 1.0 x 10-4 cfu/ml and stored at 25 degree C; pathogens were enumerated after 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of storage. Results showed that neither fennel nor coriander affected survival of any of the pathogens. Individually, lemon had the most inhibitory impact on E. coli making the organism undetectable after 3 days, while in the presence of all ingredients E. coli was not detectable after 7 days. Counts of S. aureus fell rapidly in all samples; after 7 days S. aureus could only be detected in mehiawah with no added ingredients. S. typhi survived for 28 days in mehiawah with no added ingredients and in the presence of black pepper alone, but was eliminated within 3 days in samples with only lemon, mustard or cumin added, and within 14 days in samples with only wheat added. Mehiawah containing all ingredients was free from S. typhi after 7 days. V. parahaemolyticus was eliminated from samples after 7 days with individual additions of wheat, lemon or mustard, however samples containing all the ingredients tested positive for up to 21 days. Based on these results, it is concluded that mehiawah poses minimal health risks to consumers due to the elimination of pathogens by the ingredients in a matter of days.

Record 19 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-10-R0769
TI: Biogenic amine formation and degradation by potential fish silage starter microorganisms.
AU: Enes-Dapkevicius-MLN; Nout-MJR; Rombouts-FM; Houben-JH; Wymenga-W
PY: 2000
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 57 (1/2) 107-114, 18 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Fish silage, produced by fermentation of fish paste by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), contains a considerable amount of free amino acids that can act as precursors for formation of toxic biogenic amines. Several bacteria, including some LAB, have the capacity to degrade these biogenic amines through the production of diamine oxidases (DAO; amine oxidases). In this study, attempts were made to identify suitable LAB starter cultures for production of safe fish silage. LAB isolates were screened for production of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine), effect of different conditions (pH 4.5 and 7.0, 15-37 degree C, and addition of 12% sucrose, 2% NaCl and 0.05% cysteine) on degradation of histamine in fish silage by DAO was assessed, and LAB isolates were tested for DAO activity in MRS broth (containing 0.005 g/l histamine) and ensiled fish slurry. Results showed that of 77 LAB cultures isolated from naturally fermented fish pastes, 17% were capable of producing greater than or equal1 biogenic amines. Histamine degradation by DAO occurred at all temp., but not at pH 4.5, and was unaffected by addition of 12% sucrose or 2% NaCl; however, 0.05% cysteine caused a decrease. 5 out of a further 48 LAB cultures isolated from naturally fermented fish pastes were capable of degrading histamine in broth within 30 h by 20-56%. 2 of these isolates were also capable of 50-54% histamine degradation in ensiled fish slurry. It is concluded that the use of these 2 isolates in fish silage preparation could potentially reduce the risks posed by histamine.

Record 20 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-08-R0597
TI: Biogenic amines in cold-smoked fish fermented with lactic acid bacteria.
AU: Petaja-E; Eerola-S; Petaja-P
PY: 2000
SO: European-Food-Research-and-Technology; 210 (4) 280-285, 15 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Previous studies have shown that fermentation of cold-smoked fish with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be applied to produce storable, microbiologically safe fish products. In this study, possible formation of biogenic amines during the fish fermentation process was investigated; sensory quality, pH, titrated acid content, wt. loss, aw value, redox potential and microbiological counts during 0-7 days fermentation were also evaluated. 3 groups of fish (rainbow trout) with 3 different LAB inocula and a group without any inoculum were made. Fermentation of the products made with LAB was successful. Products had acceptable sensory properties while inoculated LAB grew to greater than 8 log cfu/g; pH of the products was reduced from 6.4 to 5.0-5.3 and aw was reduced from 0.980 to 0.927. Counts of Pseudomonads, which were the predominant bacteria of fish raw material, were completely suppressed. Fish raw material and fermented products contained low amounts of biogenic amines with one exception: cadaverine, histamine and tyramine increased in all product groups in one experimental series (II) out of 3. The highest concn. of these amines were in the control products without any LAB inoculation since the LAB used and the contaminants isolated from fermented products were unable to produce cadaverine, histamine or tyramine, it is suggested that appearance of biogenic amines in experimental series II may have been caused by non-isolated contaminants of fish raw material.

Record 21 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-06-R0456
TI: Chemical and microbiological properties of mehiawah - a popular fish sauce in the Gulf.
AU: Al-Jedah-JH; Ali-MZ; Robinson-RK
PY: 1999
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 36 (6) 561-564, 10 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Poor handling of raw fish at ambient temp. can easily lead to contamination with pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli; concern has been expressed that mehiawah, a spiced, fermented fish sauce popular in the Gulf States (Middle East), could pose a health hazard to consumers. An extensive examination of home-made and commercial samples of mehiawah revealed that samples were free from vegetative pathogens even after storage for several months at 20-25 degree C; Bacillus cereus was identified in one sample. The inhibitory nature of the product was confirmed, when fresh mehiawah was inoculated with Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and E. coli. Only V. parahaemolyticus survived beyond 14 days and even this species could not be detected at 21 days. It is concluded that, during routine manufacture, the initial processing of the fish eliminated any serious contamination, while the combined effects of salt, acidity, spices and, perhaps fatty acids from the fish oil, arrested the growth of any pathogens that might enter the product during bottling.

Record 22 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-06-R0428
TI: Quality characteristics of myung-tae (Alaska pollack) sikhae during fermentation.
AU: Sang-Moo-Kim; Hee-Yun-Kim; Sung-Hee-Choi
PY: 2000
SO: Food-Science-and-Biotechnology; 9 (1) 5-9, 18 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory changes occurring in sikhae (traditional Korean fermented fish with cereals) produced from Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) fermented at different temp. and times were analysed to determine optimum conditions for value-added commercial production. Alaska pollack, cooked cereals, pepper powder, sliced radish, garlic, ginger and malt were mixed, packaged and fermented at 5, 15 and 25 degree C for up to 28 days. Samples were analysed for pH, total viable cell count, contents of lactic acid, amino nitrogen (NH2-N) and volatile basic N (VBN), TBA number and sensory qualities. Acidity decreased as fermentation progressed at all temp., while contents of lactic acid, NH2-N, and VBN increased. TBA number increased during fermentation at 5 degree C over all fermentation periods, while at 15 and 25 degree C, TBA numbers increased up to day 14 and then decreased. Numbers of total viable cells increased up to days 21 and 14 at 15 and 25 degree C, respectively and then decreased, while at 5 degree C numbers increased continuously over all fermentation periods. It is concluded that Alaska pollack sikhae fermented at 15 degree C for 21 days showed the most desirable sensory properties and acceptable aftertaste with low odour; however reductions in salt concn. and further hydrolysis of fish may be required to reduce its moderately high saltiness and chewiness.

Record 23 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-04-R0244
TI: Occurrence of D-amino acids in fish sauces and other fermented fish products.
AU: Abe-H; Jung-Nim-Park; Fukumoto-Y; Fujita-E; Tanaka-T; Washio-T; Otsuka-S; Shimizu-T; Watanabe-K
PY: 1999
SO: Fisheries-Science; 65 (4) 637-641, 20 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Free D-amino acids were determined in 60 fermented fish sauces collected from various outlets in Southeast and East Asia. Of the major D-amino acids, D-alanine, D-aspartate and D-glutamate, D-alanine was the most abundant and found in almost all fish sauces. Fish sauces from Myanmar contained significantly higher amounts of these D-amino acids than those from the other 6 countries investigated (Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, China, South Korea and Japan). In fish sauces differing in fermentation periods, D-alanine and D-aspartate were highest in fish sauces fermented 22 months. Experiments were also conducted to investigate formation of D-amino acids in fish sauces prepared in the laboratory from sardine (Sardinops melanostictus) and squid (Todarodes pacificus) to which 10 or 20% NaCl was added; salted homogenates were incubated at 30 degree C for 1 yr (20% salted samples) or 6 months (10% salted samples) and analysed weekly for microbial counts and monthly for D-amino acids. In 20%-salted sauces prepared from sardine and squid, D-alanine increased slightly only in squid-based samples. In 10%-salted preparations, highest D-alanine increase and microbial counts were observed in squid-based samples. This increase was largely suppressed in sardine preparations. All other fermented fish products analysed also contained D-alanine in widely varying amounts and a small amount of D-aspartate. Data indicated that D-alanine could potentially be used as a molecular marker of bacterial activity in fermented fish products of low salt concn.

Record 24 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-04-A0598
TI: Trans fatty acid content of processed foods in Korean diet.
AU: Kyung-Hee-Noh; Kyo-Yon-Lee; Jung-Won-Moon; Mi-Ock-Lee; Young-Sun-Song
PY: 1999
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 28 (6) 1191-1200, 46 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Total lipid and trans fatty acid (tFA) contents of 157 food items commonly consumed in Korea were assessed and a database was prepared in order to estimate Korean tFA intake. Total lipid and tFA contents were determined by the Bligh and Dyer method and attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, respectively. tFA content of margarines ranged from 0.8 to 25.2%, depending on manufacturers. Cakes contained higher levels of tFA (0.8-16.9%) than hamburgers (0.8-8.4%) and doughnuts (4.9-10%). tFA were widely distributed in crackers and cookies (0.8-25%); meat and fish products contained 0-8.9% tFA. Fried chickens contained 0-14.6% tFA and French fries 5.2-18.8%. tFA were not detected in noodles, nuts, chocolates and fermented fish sauces.

Record 25 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-03-T0208
TI: Inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria by lacticin NK24, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis NK24 from fermented fish food.
AU: Hae-Jung-Kim; Na-Kyoung-Lee; Sang-Moon-Cho; Kee-Tae-Kim; Hyun-Dong-Paik
PY: 1999
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology; 31 (4) 1035-1043, 19 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: A lactic acid bacterium tentatively identified as Lactococcus lactis NK24, isolated from jeot-gal (a Korean fermented fish food), demonstrated broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Bacteriocin (lacticin NK24) production by the bacterium was detected at the mid-log growth phase, reaching a max. in early stationary phase. Lacticin NK24 was partially purified by 75% ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis. Partially purified lacticin NK24 showed antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria.

Record 26 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-02-R0064
TI: Lactic acid bacteria found in fermented fish in Thailand.
AU: Somboon-Tanasupawat; Okada-S; Komagata-K
PY: 1998
SO: Journal-of-General-and-Applied-Microbiology; 44 (3) 193-200, 31 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Forty-seven strains of homofermentative rod-shaped and 5 heterofermentative cocci lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 4 kinds of fermented fish (pla-ra, pla-chom, kung-chom and hoi-dong) in Thailand. Bacteria were separated into 4 groups by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, including fluorometric DNA-DNA hybridization. 5 strains (Group I) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. 4 strains were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus, and 1 strain was L. plantarum. Tested strains of this group produced DL-lactic acid. The remaining rod-shaped bacteria (23 strains (Group II) and 19 strains (Group III)), lacked meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, produced L-lactic acid and were identified as L. farciminis and Lactobacillus spp., respectively. The amount of cellular fatty acids of C16:0 and C18:1, and the DNA base compositions were significant for differentiating the strains in Groups II and III. Five strains of cocci in chains (Group IV) produced gas from glucose and produced D-lactic acid. They were identified as a Leuconostoc spp. The distribution of these bacteria in fermented fish in Thailand is discussed.

Record 27 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-01-R0019
TI: [Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning after consumption of rakefisk.]
AU: Lien-A
PY: 1999
SO: Norsk-Veterinaertidsskrift; 111 (4) 255-256, 2 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: An outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning in Nesby, Norway, is described, in which 12 of 22 people who consumed rakeorret (a fermented fish product) developed gastrointestinal symptoms starting 2-5.5 h after consumption of the fish product. Samples of the rakeorret had S. aureus counts up to 11 x 10-6/g, and contained S. aureus enterotoxin type A; cultures of the S. aureus strain isolated from the rakeorret also formed this enterotoxin. Methods used for preparation of this batch of rakeorret are discussed; it is suggested that lack of refrigeration may have permitted growth of S. aureus.

Record 28 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-01-R0001
TI: Screening and identification of the fibrinolytic bacterial strain from jeot-gal, salt-fermented fish.
AU: Young-Ryeol-Jang; Won-Keuk-Kim; Ik-Boo-Kwon; Hyun-Yong-Lee
PY: 1998
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology; 30 (3) 655-659, 22 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: A bacterial strain showing strong fibrinolytic activity (2.04 plasmin unit) from jeot-gal, Korean salt-fermented fish, collected from various regions was screened. When the strain was characterized morphologically, culturally and biochemically, it was identified as Bacillus pumilus. When fatty acid composition of the strain was analysed, it was identified as Bacillus atropheus. The 16S rRNA partial sequence (V3 region) showed that the fibrinolytic strain was Bacillus subtilis. So, it was named Bacillus subtilis KJ-48. [From En summ]

Record 29 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 2000-01-R0027
TI: Accelerating effect of squid viscera on the fermention of Alaska pollack scrap sauce.
AU: Sang-Moo-Kim
PY: 1999
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 4 (2) 103-106, 17 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Fish sauce is a liquid form of salt-fermented fish and is an important part of the Korean diet. Fish sauce was manufactured using Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) scraps from Himedara (seasoned and dried Alaska pollack tail) processing; effects of squid viscera on fermentation were also evaluated. pH of Alaska pollack scrap sauce with added squid viscera was lower than that of the control over the entire fermentation process. Addition of squid viscera also accelerated production of amino-nitrogen, volatile basic nitrogen, TBA and free amino acids, and degradation of disodium 5'-inosinate and inosine. Squid viscera and koji, added at concn. of 5%, also accelerated digestion of Alaska pollack scrap and provided similar results to those observed on addition of squid viscera at 10% concn.

Record 30 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1999-11-C1393
TI: Exposure to N-nitroso compounds in a population of high liver cancer regions in Thailand: volatile nitrosamine (VNA) levels in Thai food.
AU: Mitacek-EJ; Brunnemann-KD; Suttajit-M; Martin-N; Limsila-T; Ohshima-H; Caplan-LS
PY: 1999
SO: Food-and-Chemical-Toxicology; 37 (4) 297-305, 66 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Dietary exposure to volatile nitrosamines (VNA) may partially underlie the high incidence of liver cancer in Thailand. The VNA concn. in greater than 1800 fresh and preserved (dried, salted and fermented) Thai foods and beer, collected between 1988 and 1996, were examined; nitrate and nitrite concn. were also examined to investigate whether concn. were correlated with those of VNA in foods. VNA levels were examined by GC-thermal energy analysis. VNA were detected in pork sausages, fermented pork, ham, beef (salted and dried), fermented fish, other fish products (including salted and dried), and beer; VNA were not found in curry dishes, soups, fried dishes, rice dishes or noodle dishes. 6 kinds of fermented fish (95 samples) contained significant amounts of _1 VNA (N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine). In salted or dried fish, levels of NDMA ranged from trace amounts to levels as high as 66.5 mug/kg. NDMA and NPYR were detected in some fermented vegetable products and high concn. were observed in some samples of fermented beans (Tau-chiau). Concn. of VNA were not correlated with concn. of nitrates or nitrites in Thai foods. Dietary intake data for 4 major regions (north, northeast, central and south) of Thailand were used to estimate regional exposure to dietary VNA. Dietary exposure to VNA was estimated to be highest in north and northeastern Thailand. The possible role of dietary VNA exposure in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is discussed. Regional differences in dietary VNA exposure may partially explain the marked geographical differences in incidence of HCC and CCA observed in Thailand.

Record 31 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1999-10-A1684
TI: Dietary portion size intake of fermented foods, selected insects and animals in North Eastern rural Thailand.
AU: Pasamai-Eg-Kantrong; Orapin-Banjong
PY: 1999
SO: Food-; 29 (2) 94-106, 7 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Dietary consumption practices are often influenced by local customs and food availability. Quantities of traditional Thai fermented foods and indigenous insects and small animals consumed in 1 day in the diets of 211 pregnant women, 295 breast-feeding mothers, 215 pre-school children (2-5 yr) and 383 children of school age (5-12 yr) were studied using the 24 h recall method. Percentages of target groups consuming each food group during the dry season (Feb.-April) were: fermented meat, 23-61%; pickled vegetables, 8-14%; insects, 7-19%; and small animals, 8-10%. Fermented foods eaten by all groups included salted fermented fish, sour fermented fish, salted freshwater fish, salted marine fish, fermented pork, fermented beef, salted beef, pork sausage and beef sausage. Portion sizes of all fermented foods were 4-52 g/day, apart from salted fermented fish which was consumed in smaller quantities (2.5-5 g/day). Pickled vegetables consumed were pickled mustard greens, pickled pag sein, pickled onion leaves and pickled bamboo shoots, in quantities of 34-86 g/day amongst mothers, whilst daily portions of popular insects (june beetle, cricket and ant eggs) were 8-44 g; daily consumption of indigenous animals (ground lizard, snake, rabbit, mice and birds) was in the range 23-33 g. [From En summ. & tables.]

Record 32 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1999-09-T0577
TI: Umami in Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia.
AU: Otsuka-S
PY: 1998
SO: Food-Reviews-International; 14 (2/3, Special issue on umami) 247-256, 9 ref.
DT: Review
AB: Condiments and seasonings currently and historically used for umami flavouring in dishes popular in Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia are discussed. Topics considered include: use of `dashi' (a soup stock usually made from dried bonito, kelp seaweed and dried shiitake mushrooms) to impart umami flavour to Japanese dishes; importance of `shoyu' (fermented soybean sauce) and `miso' (fermented cereal paste) for umami flavour in Japanese cooking; production of shoyu in Japan and its gradual introduction to western countries; use of `shiokara' (fermented fish with salt) as a condiment or side dish for umami flavour in Korean dishes; and fermented fish sauces used for umami flavour in other regions of Asia.

Record 33 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1999-09-T0575
TI: Umami taste and traditional seasonings.
AU: Yoshida-Y
PY: 1998
SO: Food-Reviews-International; 14 (2/3, Special issue on umami) 213-246, 28 ref.
DT: Review
AB: Umami flavour characteristics of condiments and seasonings used around the world are discussed, with reference to: traditional use of condiments and seasonings having umami flavour properties; and chemical composition and free amino acid levels in a range of condiments and seasonings, including: fermented fish and shrimp sauces, and pastes popular in Asian countries; fermented bean products (including soy sauce); concentrated extracts (including commercial yeast and beef extracts, oyster sauce and dried bonito); and other seasonings (including processed tomato products).

Record 34 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1999-08-R0513
TI: Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation.
AU: Paludan-Muller-C; Huss-HH; Gram-L
PY: 1999
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 46 (3) 219-229, 37 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on raw materials and during fermentation of som-fak, a Thai product composed of minced fish fillets, 2-5% salt, 2-12% ground boiled rice and 4% minced garlic (packed in banana leaves and fermented for 2-5 days at 30 degree C), were examined, to determine species required for fermentation. The significance of the garlic and rice as substrates for fermentation was also evaluated. LAB isolated from raw materials and som-fak at 0,1, 2, 4 and 5 days of fermentation were characterized by phenotyping, and evaluated for ability to ferment starch, garlic and inulin in model substrates. Fermentation of som-fak without and with garlic was also examined. 185 LAB were identified and classified according to origin and species. At the beginning of fermentation, Leuconostoc spp., Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus lactis subsp. lactis dominated the microflora, followed by more acid-tolerant Lactobacillus species, such as L. curvatus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum, the latter dominating towards the end of fermentation. Fermenting properties of strains were generally associated with the main carbohydrate substrate of their origin - starch fermenters originated from rice and garlic/inulin fermenters from garlic and banana leaves. Minced fish contained both types. In som-fak, a succession of garlic-fermenting L. plantarum strains was identified, suggesting that garlic may be a more important carbohydrate source than rice starch during fermentation. Initial presence and growth of LAB able to ferment garlic proved essential for rapid reduction of pH. Thus, garlic may have a dual role, by inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts and providing a fermentation substrate.

Record 35 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11AN: 1999-07-A1047
TI: Marinospirillum gen. nov., with descriptions of Marinospirillum megaterium sp. nov., isolated from kusaya gravy, and transfer of Oceanospirillum minutulum to Marinospirillum minutulum comb. nov.
AU: Satomi-M; Kimura-B; Hayashi-M; Shouzen-Y; Okuzumi-M; Fujii-T
PY: 1998
SO: International-Journal-of-Systematic-Bacteriology; 48 (4) 1341-1348, 40 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Kusaya gravy is a traditional Japanese fermented brine used in the preparation of fermented fish. Phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics of 2 strains of helical, halophilic, Gram negative bacteria isolated from kusaya gravy were examined. The strains were motile by means of a single polar or bipolar tuft flagellum, had a large cell size, formed coccoid bodies, were microaerophilic and had quinone type Q-8. The DNA G+C content of the strains was 44-45 mol%. Data revealed that the strains represent a new species of halophilic helical bacteria. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of strain H7-T, designated the type strain of the new isolates, and all of the Oceanospirillum spp., except for O. linum, were determined. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains were closely related to O. minutulum, with enough distance to separate the O. minutulum/new isolate H7-T cluster from O. sensu stricto on the genus level. It is proposed that a new genus, Marinospirillum, be created; this genus should include M. minutulum ATCC 19193-T (formerly O. minutulum) as the type species, as well as M. megaterium JCM 10129-T (= H7-T). [From En summ.]

Record 36 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-10-G0389
TI: Microbiology of fermented foods.
AU: Wood-BJB [Editor]
PY: 1998
SO: xx +440pp. ISBN 0-7514-0216-8, many ref.
DT: Book
AB: The second edition of this 2-volume book provides an updated and expanded look at the microbiology of a wide range of foodstuffs from diverse cultures. Important topics covered by the first edition have been revised. The book should be of interest to microbiologists and biotechnologists involved in the industrial production of fermented foods. It also provides invaluable information for academics and students who are researching food microbiology and fermentation. Vol. 1 contains the following chapters: Vinegar (pp. 1-44, many ref.); The microbiology of vegetable fermentations (pp. 45-72, 99 ref.); Cocoa, coffee and tea (pp. 128-147, 48 ref.); Thickeners of microbial origin (pp. 148-171, 94 ref.); Bread and baker's yeast (pp. 172-198, 81 ref.); Sourdough breads and related products (pp. 199-216, 61 ref.); The microbiology of alcoholic beverages (pp. 217-262, many ref.); Cheeses (pp. 263-307, 98 ref.); Fermented milks (pp. 308-350, many ref.); Fermented protein foods in the Orient: shoyu and miso in Japan (pp. 351-415, many ref.); and Fermented fish and fish products (pp. 416-440, many ref.). Chapters contained in volume 2 are: Fermented sausages (pp. 441-483, many ref.); Protein-rich foods based on fermented vegetables (pp. 484-504, many ref.); Food flavour from yeast (pp. 505-542, 89 ref.); Biology and technology of mushroom culture (pp. 543-584, 70 ref.); Algae as food (pp. 585-602, many ref.); Bio-enrichment: production of vitamins in fermented foods (pp. 603-619, 71 ref.); Production of industrial enzymes and some applications in fermented foods (pp. 622-657, 10 ref.); Koji (pp. 658-695, many ref.); Food fermentation in the tropics (pp. 696-712, 18 ref.); African fermented foods (pp. 713-752, many ref.); Fermented foods of the Indian subcontinent (pp. 753-789, many ref.); Fermented weaning foods (pp. 790-811, 92 ref.); Potential infective and toxic microbiological hazards associated with the consumption of fermented foods (pp. 812-837, many ref.); and The impact of genetic engineering on food and beverage fermentations (pp. 838-852, 16 ref.). Subject indexes are included in each volume.

Record 37 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-09-R0722
TI: Characterization of N-(nitrosomethyl)urea in nitrosated fermented fish products.
AU: Dajun-Deng; Tong-Li; Hong-Ma; Ruming-Wang; Liankun-Gu; Jing-Zhou
PY: 1998
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 46 (1) 202-205, 24 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: To characterize chemical carcinogens in acidic-nitrosated fish sauce, N-nitrosamides in the sample were separated by 2 kinds of reversed-phase HPLC columns, and with detection by a photolysis-pyrolysis-thermal energy analyser. A strong chromatographic peak at retention time 12 or 4.5 min, the same as that for N-(nitrosomethyl)urea (NMU), was obtained on PRP-1 or C18 HPLC columns from the fish sauce sample with 10mM trifluoroacetic acid as the basic mobile; acetonitrile, as organic modifier after the sample was nitrosated by 5 mmol/l of sodium nitrite (final concn.) at 37 degree C and pH 2.0 for 1 h. No response above retention time could be observed from the nitrosated sample in the detection system without photolysis. Such a peak could not be obtained from the unnitrosated fish sauce either. These results indicated that the component was NMU. Furthermore, this component, NMU, could also be detected in the nitrosated human gastric juice sample spiked with fish sauce. The formation of NMU in the sample was pH- and nitrite-dependent. This paper provides direct evidence that NMU formation could occur in fish sauce from the high-risk area for stomach cancer and in the fish sauce spiked human gastric juice during nitrosation under simulated gastric conditions.

Record 38 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-09-R0717
TI: Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria from Thai fermented fish products.
AU: Ostergaard-A; Embarek-PKB; Wedell-Neergaard-C; Huss-HH; Gram-L
PY: 1998
SO: Food-Microbiology; 15 (2) 223-233, 47 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Fermentation of foods is often caused by lactic acid bacteria and it is possible that they exert an antibacterial effect which is relevant in both product safety and inhibition of pathogens in situ. Lactic acid bacteria (isolated from Thai fermented fish products) which showed anti-listerial activity were characterized, with particular reference to inhibition of pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Growth characteristics were also determined in order to assess their suitability for use as starters and/or biopreservatives. Of the 44 strains examined, 43 inhibited L. monocytogenes. All strains were inhibitory to Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus and 37 inhibited Aeromonas spp. Identification of isolates showed that the majority (29; 65%) were Lactobacillus spp.; Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic and Carnobacterium piscicola were also isolated. Rice (which is added to fish products and serves as a carbohydrate source), potatoes and corn starch were only fermented by 4 isolates, indicating that other bacterial species may be responsible for the rapid fermentation of products. Results of growth profiles indicated that isolates were unsuitable for use as live biopreservatives in chilled products. It is concluded that lactic acid bacteria with a broad inhibitory spectrum are not uncommon in Thai fermented fish products and are likely to contribute to their safety and stability.

Record 39 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-09-R0696
TI: Characterization of fermented fish waste used in feeding trials with broilers.
AU: Hammoumi-A; Faid-M; El-Yachioui-M; Amarouch-H
PY: 1998
SO: Process-Biochemistry; 33 (4) 423-427, 14 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Use of fish waste for animal feed production was investigated. Chopped pilchard (sardine,Sardina pilchardus) waste was mixed with 15% cane molasses, inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and fermented at 22 degree C for 20 days. Nutritional quality and biochemical properties were monitored during fermentation. The fermented product was used to make 3 formulas which were assessed in broiler feeding trials. Results indicate considerable potential for use of fish waste for poultry feeding.

Record 40 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-08-R0618
TI: Aroma-active compounds in skipjack tuna sauce.
AU: Cha-YJ; Cadwallader-KR
PY: 1998
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 46 (3) 1123-1128, 44 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: [Fish sauce, a clear brown liquid hydrolysate of salted fish, is a popular fermented fish product in Asia.] Volatile compounds in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) viscera (STV) and tuna sauce (TS) made from STV were analysed by vacuum simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, GC, MS, olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis. Predominant odorants in STV were lipid-derived compounds such as (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal (stale/peanut-like), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (fatty/rancid fat-like), (E)-2-nonenal (stale, bitter), and (Z)-4-heptenal (fishy/rancid) and unidentified compounds having grassy, fresh fish-like odours. In contrast to STV, potent odorants in TS were mostly thermally generated compounds such as 3-(methylthio)propanal (baked potato-/soy sauce-like), dimethyl trisulphide (cooked cabbage-like), and -methylbutanal (dark chocolate-like). Additional potent odorants in TS were (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, a phenylacetaldehyde (honesuckle-like), and 2 unidentified compounds having nutty, baked potato-, vitamin- and cooked rice-like odours. 2 amino acids, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, were predominant in both samples.

Record 41 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-08-R0604
TI: The study of the amount of trace elements in some fermented fish products (jeot-gal) from some areas of the west coast in Korea.
AU: Soon-Kyung-Kim; Ae-Jung-Kim
PY: 1997
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 26 (6) 1063-1067, 25 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Levels of trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Mn, Pb and Cd) in salt-fermented fish products from the west coast of Korea were studied using ICP spectroscopy. Samples used were shrimp (seawoo-jeot), clam (jogai-jeot), oyster (orikul-jeot), big eyed herring (bendeng-ie jeot), mysis (gonjeng-ie jeot), hwangandali (hwangsegi-jeot) and squid (han chi-jeot): moisture contents of the respective samples before freezing drying were 68.36, 71.52, 81.19, 62.27, 71.30, 64.27 and 66.74%. Fe contents were 66.46, 309.10, 27.03, 23.01, 132.45, 35.75 and 9.72 p.p.m.; Cu contents were 4.60, 4.36, 3.75, 2.21, 10.36, 2.71 and 58.15 p.p.m.; Zn contents were 16.02, 75.06, 37.43, 28.43, 132.35, 35.75 and 9.72 p.p.m.; Cr contents were 0.80, 1.61, 0.84, 0.96, 1.12, 0.96 and 0.59 p.p.m.; Co contents were 0.13, 0.54, 0.31, 0.46, 0.50, 0.63 and 0.35 p.p.m.; Mn contents were 7.30, 10.69, 14.87, 4.12, 8.03, 2.94 and 1.54 p.p.m.; Pb contents were 1.80, 4.30, 2.53, 4.61, 3.08, 5.04 and 2.74 p.p.m.; and Cd contents were 0.005, 0.03, 0.06, 0.005, 0.01, 0.00 and 0.10 p.p.m. [From En summ.]

Record 42 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-08-G0276
TI: Effect of kimchi extracts to reactive oxygen species in skin cell cytotoxicity.
AU: Seung-Hee-Ryu; Young-Soo-Jeon; Myung-Ja-Kwon; Jung-Won-Moon; Young-Soon-Lee; Gap-Soon-Moon
PY: 1997
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 26 (5) 814-821, 28 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Kimchi is composed of many ingredients such as Chinese cabbage, garlic, ginger, red pepper and fermented fish extract; some of them are known to have antioxidative activities due to their scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species (ROS). To study the health effects of kimchi on human skin cells, keratinocytes (A431, epidermal carcinoma, human) and fibroblasts (CCD-986SK, normal control, human) were cultured under oxidative stress conditions provoked by paraquat, a superoxide anion generator, and H2O2 in the absence and presence of kimchi extract. Survival rate of the keratinocytes was greatly reduced when they were exposed to concn. of H2O2 of greater than 1mM, but cytotoxicity of H2O2 on cells was significantly reduced by kimchi extracts. Kimchi fermented for 2 wk remarkably decreased the cytotoxicity generated by H2O2 in keratinocytes. Paraquat concn. greater than 1mM showed strong keratinocyte toxicity, and the extracts from kimchi fermented for 1, 2 and 3 wk showed protective effects in that order. Fibroblasts were significantly affected by H2O2, as were keratinocytes. Although almost all extracts from kimchi fermented for different periods showed protective effects against cell death when 0.5mM concn. of H2O2 were employed, extracts from kimchies fermented for 2 wk showed the strongest protective effect on fibroblasts treated with 1mM H2O2 for either 1 or 4 days. Most of the kimchi extracts showed weak preventive effects or no effect at all on oxidative stress produced by paraquat. In conclusion, extracts from kimchi fermented for 2 wk seem to have the greatest potential in protecting skin cells from oxidative damage; this might be related to the scavenging effects of kimchi components produced during the fermentation process. [From En summ.]

Record 43 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-06-S1046
TI: Effects of proteolytic enzymes on the production of fermented beef or pork with addition of fermented shrimp.
AU: Kim-YJ; Sung-KS; Han-CK; Jeong-JH; Kang-TS
PY: 1996
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Animal-Science; 38 (3) 275-282, 16 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: A study was conducted to develop a new fermented meat product, which is similar to fermented fish sauce. Sliced beef or pork treated with proteolytic enzymes (0.05% Novo E89L or 0.5% Pacific Protase NP) or nonenzyme treated was incubated at 55 degree C for 4 h. Salt (25% (w/w)) and ground fermented shrimp (10% (w/w)) were added to both nonenzyme treated and enzyme treated samples, and mixed well. Untreated sliced meat with only 25% salt added was used as a control. TBA and volatile basic N values, and soluble protein content from the filtrate of each treatment were determined to evaluate degree of fermentation during 100 days of storage at 10 or 20 degree C. [From En summ.]

Record 44 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1998-03-G0069
TI: Lactic acid fermented foods and their benefits in Asia.
AU: Cherl-Ho-Lee
PY: 1997
SO: Food-Control; 8 (5/6) 259-269, 33 ref.
DT: Review
AB: The many types of foods produced around the world by lactic fermentation are reviewed, together with the processing methods and properties of kimchi and sikhae, 2 Korean lactic acid fermented foods. Aspects considered include: types of lactic acid fermented foods (acid-leavened bread and pancakes, acid-fermented cereal gruels and beverages, acid-fermented starch ingredients, acid-fermented vegetables, acid-fermented fish and meat); preservation of fish by sikhae fermentation (history, processing, the microorganisms involved, nutrition and safety); and preservation of vegetables by kimchi fermentation (history, processing, the microorganisms involved, antipathogenic and antimicrobial activities, physiological effects of kimchi).

Record 45 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1997-11-R0068
TI: Critical review on the microbiological standardization of salt-fermented fish product.
AU: Sung-Ho-Hur
PY: 1996
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 25 (5) 885-891, 32 ref.
DT: Review
AB: Various safety problems associated with fermented fish products have affected product manufacture on a large scale. In this review, salt fermented anchovy was used to elucidate the properties of the microorganisms involved in its fermentation, in order to determine areas in which product quality could be improved. Dominant species involved in product fermentation were Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus sp.; other microoganisms present were Vibrio sp., Clostridium sp., Serratia sp., Achromobacter sp., Streptococcus sp., Brevibacterium sp., Halobacterium sp., Flavobacterium sp., Corynebacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp., Sarcina sp., Staphylococcus sp., Torulopsis sp. and Saccharomyces sp. It is suggested that, to standardize the quality of fermented fish products, screening and isolation of microorganisms should be carried out; proper sanitation controls should be also employed to maintain the commercial value of the product by prolonging the shelf life. [From En summ.]

Record 46 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1997-11-R0001
TI: Bacterial mutagenicity of terasi and antimutagenicity of Indonesian jasmine tea against terasi.
AU: Surono-IS; Hosono-A
PY: 1996
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 32 (1/2) 49-58, 20 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Terasi, a traditional fermented product of Indonesia (prepared from fermented fish and shrimp) was evaluated using the Salmonalla mutagenesis assay. The higher the heating temp. and the longer the heating time, the more the mutagenicity caused by both terasi and its starter; the highest mutagenic activity was achieved by heating at 100 degree C for 60 min. Terasi starter has stronger mutagenic properties than terasi. Indonesian jasmine tea (yellow tea) was examined for its antimutagenic properties against mutagenic terasi. Tea components present in fraction C (water soluble, chloroform and ethyl acetate insoluble fraction) as well as in fraction D (water soluble, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol insoluble fraction) were found to suppress the mutagenicities exerted by heated terasi and heated terasi starter. Tea components present in fraction E (chloroform soluble fraction) enhanced mutagenicity of terasi. [From En summ.]

Record 47 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1997-10-R0058
TI: Nutritive value of dried lactic acid fermented fish silage and soybean meal in dry diets for juvenile catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).
AU: Fagbenro-O; Jauncey-K; Krueger-R
PY: 1997
SO: Journal-of-Applied-Ichthyology/Zeitschrift-fuer-Angewandte-Ichthyologie; 13 (1) 27-30, 23 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Comparative 70 day feeding trials were conducted on groups of young African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) to assess effects of diets based on fish meal or a lactic acid fermented fish silage/soybean meal mix on growth and composition. The diets fed contained equal protein concn. Results showed that the fish silage/soybean meal diet gave poorer growth and feed efficiency than the fish meal diet. Protein content of the catfish carcasses was lower for catfish fed the fish silage/soybean meal diet than for fish fed the fish meal diet (14.67 vs. 15.85% respectively). Moisture, lipid and ash contents of the fish carcasses were unaffected by the diets studied.

Record 48 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1997-10-G0015
TI: Lactic acid fermented foods and their benefits in Asia.
AU: Cherl-Ho-Lee
PY: 1996
SO: Foods-and-Biotechnology; 5 (3) 187-197, 27 ref.
DT: Review
AB: This paper reviews many types of the world's lactic acid fermented foods [including acid-leavened bread and pancakes, acid-fermented cereal gruel, and beverages, acid-fermented starches, acid-fermented vegetables and acid-fermented fish and newt]. In particular, the beneficial effects of lactic fermentation of food are considered by focusing on 2 examples taken from Korean cuisine, kimchi and sikhae. Sikhae is the generic name of a class of Korean lactic acid fermented fish products that contain 6-8% salt and generally are at pH 4-5. Koreans are able to preserve fish for 1-2 months at ambient temperatures by this method. Due to the low salt content, sikhae contributes much-needed protein to the Korean rice-based diet. Kimchi is the generic name for a class of Korean lactic acid fermented vegetables that contain 3-4% salt and generally are at pH 4.0-4.5. Kimchi is an important source of vitamins and minerals especilly during the wintertime. It is a popular dish and provides a source of intestinal lactic acid bacteria. The physiological effects of kimchi have been studied widely in Korea and recent results are summarized in this paper.

Record 49 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-12-P0110
TI: Antimutagenicity of milk cultured with lactic acid bacteria from dadih against mutagenic terasi.
AU: Surono-IS; Hosono-A
PY: 1996
SO: Milchwissenschaft-; 51 (9) 493-497, 30 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Previous studies have shown that lactic acid bacteria isolated from dadih, a traditional Indonesian fermented milk of Indonesia, are able to bind mutagens and inhibit mutagenic nitrosamines. The antimutagenicity of milk cultured with lactic acid bacteria from dadih against terasi, an Indonesian fermented fish/shrimp product shown to be mutagenic using the Ames test, was investigated. Milks were inoculated with 1 each of 24 lactic acid bacteria isolated from dadih and incubated for up to 24 h at either 30 or 37 degree C depending on the species. Growth parameters of the bacteria and antimutagenicity against terasi extracts were determined. Generally, all milks cultured with dadih lactic acid bacteria displayed antimutagenic activity towards terasi extract although wide variation was observed. Highest antimutagenicity was displayed by milk cultured with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-52, which showed 96.93% inhibition, while lowest antimutagenicity (29.39% inhibition) was observed for milk cultured with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis R-63. Results suggest that the fermented milk product suppresses mutagenesis in a desmutagenic manner. Bacterial strains with the greatest antimutagenic properties also had highest viable counts during incubation. Since terasi is widely consumed in Indonesia, it is suggested that consumption of dadih will be beneficial.

Record 50 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-12-G0016
TI: Effects of salt-fermented fish and chitosan addition on the pectic substance and the texture changes of kimchi during fermentation.
AU: Sun-Choung-Ahn; Gui-Ju-Lee
PY: 1995
SO: Journal-of-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science; 11 (3) 309-315, 19 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Effects of fermented sea food sauces (shrimp and anchovy) and chitosan on the composition and texture of kimchies were investigated. During fermentation, pH of kimchies prepared with shrimp and anchovy sauces decreased; addition of chitosan gave an increase in acidity. Addition of sauces or chitosan resulted in a decrease in the compression force of kimchies; the decrease was greater for kimchies prepared using sea food sauces than with those made with chitosan. During fermentation, hot water soluble pectin levels in control kimchies (without chitosan or sea food sauces), and kimchies made with sea food sauces increased, while HCl soluble pectin levels decreased; the opposite was observed in kimchies containing chitosan. Kimchies made with chitosan had higher hardness, crispness and chewiness values than the other kimchies. Results showed that pH and acidity and compression force were highly correlated with crispness. It is concluded that addition of chitosan to kimchies influences pectic substance levels and improves their textural properties. [From En summ. & tables.]

Record 51 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-10-R0062
TI: Changes of microbial and chemical components in salt-fermented youbsak during the fermentation.
AU: Ho-Chul-Yang; Hee-Jong-Chung
PY: 1995
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology; 27 (2) 185-192, 26 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Changes in microorganisms in and composition of salt fermented youbsak, a traditional fermented fish product, were studied. Total microbial count of youbsak gradually increased during 30 days fermentation and then decreased. There was a rapid decrease in pH and acidity after 15 days fermentation. Volatile basic nitrogen and amino nitrogen increased rapidly up to 30 days fermentation, then decreased slightly with addition of broth from bones of swine. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid in youbsak; major free amino acids in youbsak were leucine, tyrosine, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine, alanine and methionine. [From En summ.]

Record 52 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-10-R0038
TI: [Bioconversion of fishing industry residues.]
AU: Morales-Ulloa-DF; Oetterer-M
PY: 1995
SO: Ciencia-e-Tecnologia-de-Alimentos; 15 (3) 206-214, 35 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Large amounts of processing wastes are produced in the Brazilian fish industry. Effects of fermentation of these wastes, which contain high levels of nutrients, on their composition and nutritional properties were investigated. Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) wastes were acidified with a 3:1 mixture of formic and propionic acids, supplemented with molasses and inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and/or Pediococcus acidilactici). Fermentations were carried out for up to 2 wk; protein, fat, carbohydrate, water and ash contents were determined after 48 h, 1 wk and 2 wk. After 2 wk, the pH of the wastes remained stable at 4.18-4.23. Fermentation increased the in vitro protein digestibility of the wastes in all cases. The nutritional value of the fermented wastes was examined using dietary studies with rats. It is concluded that fermented fish wastes have potential as a food supplement. [From En summ.]

Record 53 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-10-R0021
TI: Physicochemical and microbiological changes associated with bakasang processing - a traditional Indonesian fermented fish sauce.
AU: Ijong-FG; Ohta-Y
PY: 1996
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 71 (1) 69-74, 18 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: The production of bakasang, an Indonesian fermented fish sauce, was replicated in the laboratory in order to study the physicochemical and microbiological changes associated with the process. Bakasang samples were produced by incubating mixtures of small Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) at different concn. of sodium chloride and glucose at 37 degree C for 40 days. Changes in pH, total soluble nitrogen, total free amino nitrogen, amino acid composition and total plate counts were observed by collecting and analysing samples after 0, 4, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of fermentation. Isolation and identification of microflora were also performed. pH decreased throughout the incubation period, irrespective of NaCl and glucose concn., and increases in amounts of total soluble nitrogen and total free amino nitrogen were noticed. The amino acids glutamic acid, alanine, isoleucine and lysine were prominent at the end of the process. The total plate count increased during the first 10 days and then decreased gradually for both total microbial population and lactic acid bacteria population. Micrococcus, Streptococcus and Pediococcus spp. were predominant during bakasang fermentation.

Record 54 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-10-R0020
TI: Study of the differences between two salt qualities on microbiology, lipid and water-extractable components of momoni, a Ghanaian fermented fish product.
AU: Yankah-VV; Ohshima-T; Ushio-H; Fujii-T; Koizumi-C
PY: 1996
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 71 (1) 33-40, 23 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Lipid oxidation and low final product quality observed during processing and storage of a Ghanaian fermented fish product (momoni) were investigated. Quality of salts used in the curing procedures, i.e. crude solar salt and refined salt, which has lower moisture and microbial load than crude salt were determined. Japanese mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) were used as raw materials. Salt was added to fish at 150 g/kg and fermentation was conducted at 26 degree C. Samples were stored for 60 days at 60% RH. Samples were analysed during fermentation and after 2 wk, and 1 and 2 months of storage. Differences after fermentation and storage of both refined-salted and crude-salted fish were as follows: decrease in aw of fish during processing was slower with crude salt than with refined salt; volatile basic N and total microbiological counts were higher in crude-salted fish; and the polyamine of highest concn. in crude-salted samples was histamine, whilst cadaverine concn. dominated in fish fermented with refined salt. TBA reactive substances and peroxide values of the extracted total lipids increased during processing and free fatty acid and diglyceride concn. were higher in the crude-salted fish than in the samples cured with refined salt. Polyenoic fatty acid levels were higher in samples fermented with refined salt; levels of total cholesterol oxides were higher in crude-salted samples. It is concluded that use of refined salt is to be preferred over the use of crude salt, as it leads to a better quality product. [From En summ.]

Record 55 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-10-C0103
TI: Biogenic amines: their importance in foods.
AU: Silla-Santos-MH
PY: 1996
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 29 (2/3) 213-231, many ref.
DT: Review
AB: Formation and properties of biogenic amines in foods are reviewed. Aspects considered include: the definition of biogenic amines, amine precursors and prerequisites for biogenic amine synthesis; presence in non-fermented foods (fish, fruit juices, fruits, vegetables, meat, milk); biogenic amines in fermented foods (cheese and dairy products, fermented vegetables, fermented meat products, wine and beer, fermented fish products); microorganisms producing biogenic amines; factors affecting amine decarboxylase activity; function and physiological significance of biogenic amines in foods; toxicology; and analytical methods for determination of biogenic amines in foods.

Record 56 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-10-C0031
TI: The occurrence of Bacillus cereus in local Thai traditional foods.
AU: Gasaluck-P; Yokoyama-K; Kimura-T; Sugahara-I
PY: 1996
SO: Journal-of-Antibacterial-and-Antifungal-Agents,-Japan; 24 (5) 349-356, 37 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: A total of 589 strains of Bacillus was isolated from local traditional foods (kapi (shrimp paste), nam-pla (fish sauce), pla-ra (fermented fish), pla-kem (semi-dried salted fish), phak-dong (fermented vegetables) and yiaw-bong (fermented fish cooked with spices and condiments)), spices, rice flour and well water collected from villages and local markets in NE Thailand. Prevalence of B. cereus and enterotoxin synthesis by B. cereus were examined. 20 of the 439 Bacillus strains isolated on bonito extract-polypeptone-glucose agar and 46 of the 150 strains isolated using NGKG/MS (mannitol-salt) agar were B. cereus. Of these 66 strains of B. cereus, 23 produced enterotoxins. Enterotoxin-producing strains were detected in kapi, nam-pla, pla-kem, rice flour, glutinous rice flour and well water. Of the enterotoxigenic strains, 18 hydrolysed starch. Most B. cereus strains tested were sensitive to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol. All strains tested were resistant to polymyxin B. Enterotoxins produced by B. cereus were detected by a reversed passive agglutination method, but did not show haemolytic or lecithinase activity after treatment at 100 degree C for 60 min. [From En summ.]

Record 57 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-07-G0015
TI: A survey on the children's notion in kimchi. I. Children's preferences for kimchi.
AU: Yeong-Ok-Song; Eun-Hee-Kim; Myung-Kim; Jung-Won-Moon
PY: 1995
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-and-Nutrition; 24 (5) 758-764, 16 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: A survey on the kimchi preferences among elementary school students in Pusan, Korea, was conducted in April 1995 to collect information needed for the development of special kimchi for the children. 1100 children in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade from public and private elementary school participated in the survey. 68% of students stated that they liked kimchi. However, kimchi preference (17.6%) when surveyed amongst other side dishes (pork cutlet, ham, sausage (54.1%), egg roll (9.4%), soysauced beef (8.2%), toasted laver (6.3%), bean sprout namul (3.0%), danmooji (1.0%), and squash namul (0.4%)) was relatively low. It is suggested that elementary school students prefer processed food, especially animal food, to kimchi. The spicy flavour of kimchi was the most popular reason for dislike of kimchi, and also the most important reason for those who liked kimchi. Chinese cabbage kimchi was found to be the most favourite kimchi followed by kakdugi (seasoned pickles of cubed radish), nabak-kimchi (mildly seasoned water based kimchi that is mixture of Chinese cabbage and cubed radish) and chonggag kimchi (seasoned pickles of pony tail radish) and cucumber kimchi. Among the various ingredients in kimchi, children preferred cabbage most, and they disliked garlic, ginger, green onion and fermented fish sauce which impart strong flavour to kimchies. [From En summ. See following abstr. for part II.]

Record 58 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-06-G0012
TI: Lactic acid bacteria in fermented foods in Thailand.
AU: Tanasupawat-S; Komagata-K
PY: 1996
SO: World-Journal-of-Microbiology-&-Biotechnology; 11 (3) 253-256, 27 ref.
DT: Review
AB: The distribution and function of lactic acid bacteria in fermented foods made in Thailand are reviewed. Aspects considered include: traditional fermented foods in Thailand (fermented fish, meat, vegetable and cereal products); production of fermented foods; levels and distribution of lactic acid bacteria in fermented foods; and functions of lactic acid bacteria (lactic acid production and reduction of pH, enzyme production, production of antimicrobial compounds).

Record 59 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-06-G0007
TI: Characterization of starch-hydrolyzing lactic acid bacteria isolated from a fermented fish and rice food, 'burong isda', and its amylolytic enzyme.
AU: Olympia-M; Fukuda-H; Ono-H; Kaneko-Y; Takano-M
PY: 1995
SO: Journal-of-Fermentation-and-Bioengineering; 80 (2) 124-130, 42 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Nine strains of lactic acid bacteria that hydrolyse starch were isolated from burong isda, an indigenous (Philippines) fermented food made from fish and rice. Conventional taxonomic and DNA-DNA reassociation studies indicated that all isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum. Each isolate harboured greater than 10 plasmid species with molecular sizes of 2 to 60 kb. Amylolytic amylase activity of one of the isolates, L137, was lost by treatment with novobiocin (frequency 43%) which was concomitant with curing of a 33-kb plasmid designated pLTK13. It is suggested that pLTK13 carries a gene necessary for the synthesis of an amylolytic enzyme. An acidophilic starch-hydrolysing enzyme secreted from L137 cells was purified 46-fold (specific activity of 44 U/mg protein). The enzyme had a molecular mass of approx. 230 kDa; optimum temp. and pH for the enzyme reaction with soluble starch were 35 degree C and 3.8-4.0, repectively. The enzyme hydrolysed soluble starch, amylopectin, glycogen and pullulan and, to a lesser extent, amylose; it exerted no activity on dextran and cyclodextrins. Major reaction products from soluble starch were maltotriose, maltotetraose and maltopentaose; panose was not detected and maltotriose was the sole product from pullulan. Km values for soluble starch, pullulan and amylose were 4.0, 5.1 and 33 g/l, respectively. Results suggest that this enzyme hydrolyses both alpha-1,6- and alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages. [From En summ.]

Record 60 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1996-05-R0055
TI: Microflora and chemical assessment of an Indonesian traditional fermented fish sauce 'bakasang'.
AU: Ijong-FG; Ohta-Y
PY: 1995
SO: Journal-of-the-Faculty-of-Applied-Biological-Science,-Hiroshima-University; 34 (2) 95-100, 16 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Microflora and chemical properties of bakasang, a traditional fermented fish sauce from Indonesia, were investigated. 5 samples of bakasang were obtained from local markets or supermarkets in Indonesia. Samples were analysed for moisture, salt, total lipid, crude protein, amino acid composition and pH. Microbial analysis determined total plate count, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total coliforms and spore forming bacteria (SFB) in samples. All samples had similar moisture contents, pH ranged from 5.4 to 6.3 and salt concn. varied significantly, from 8 to 18%. Crude lipid and protein contents ranged from 14 to 17% and 0.1 to 3.0%, respectively. Total aerobic and anaerobic counts were similar for all samples. Total LAB ranged from 4.8 to 6.15 (log cfu/ml). No coliform bacteria were detected in samples and SFB (Clostridium sp.) were found in 2 of the 5 samples analysed. Staphylococcus sp. and Lactobacillus sp. were the main organisms isolated. Predominant amino acids were glutamic acid, phenylalanine and isoleucine.

Record 61 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1995-10-R0064
TI: A study on histamine content in preserved fish products.
AU: Srisomboon-P; Jaengsawang-C; Chareanvitvorakul-M
PY: 1995
SO: Food-; 25 (1) 35-42, 9 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Histamine levels in preserved fish products (26 fish sauce samples, 15 tropical fermented fish samples and 24 sun dried anchovy samples) intended for export were determined by a fluorometric method with a detection limit of 5 mg/kg. All samples were found to contain histamine. Mean histamine levels and range of histamine content in fish sauces, fermented fish and sun dried anchovies were 292.8 (36.7-1031.1), 114.7 (10.5-443.7) and 174 (5.0-1424.1) mg/kg, respectively. 35.4 % of the preserved fish product samples contained greater than 200 mg/kg histamine. It is concluded that the high histamine levels found indicate poor handling and/or processing of these products. Education on hygienic handling of raw materials and proper process control are recommended for local health authorities and producers. [From En summ.]

Record 62 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1995-09-R0030
TI: Amino acid compositions of bakasang, a traditional fermented fish sauce from Indonesia.
AU: Ijong-FG; Ohta-Y
PY: 1995
SO: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft-und-Technologie; 28 (2) 236-237, 8 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Bakasang is a traditional salt-fermented fish (sardine) sauce widely consumed in eastern Indonesia. Traditional manufacture involves several parameters and the effects of these on quality are unknown. Chemical and amino acid composition of bakasang manufactured under laboratory conditions was determined and compared to traditionally produced bakasang; effecs of NaCl concn. and stable temp. were also investigated. Using 100 g salt/kg sardines gave more hydrolysed products than if 200 g/kg was used. Traditional bakasang is fermented under variable temp. and gave a lower total amino acid content than when fermented at constant temp. Glutamic acid, lysine and isoleucine were the predominant amino acids in both traditional and laboratory bakasang, although phenylalanine was also high in traditional samples.

Record 63 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1995-08-R0056
TI: Composition and nutritive value of sun-dried Puntius sophore.
AU: Sarojnalini-C; Vishwanath-W
PY: 1994
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 31 (6) 480-483, 23 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Proximate composition and digestibility of sun-dried Puntius sophore, a low-cost variety of sun-dried fish used in a traditional Indian fermented fish paste (ngari), were evaluated. Samples contained (%) moisture 18.1, proteins 45.0, lipids 18.5 and ash 11.0. In vitro digestibility of protein by pepsin was 44.1% in 2 h, as opposed to 55.7% by pepsin + trypsin in 24 h. Feeding trials were conducted using laboratory rats, and biological value, food conversion ratio and PER were determined. Total volatile basic nitrogen, TBA number and peroxide value were also determined for the samples, and were found to be within acceptable limits. [From En summ.]

Record 64 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1995-06-R0002
TI: Volatile components in salt-fermented fish and shrimp pastes.
AU: Cha-YJ; Cadwallader-KR
PY: 1995
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 60 (1) 19-24, 38 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Volatile compounds in salt-fermented anchovy [Engraulis japonica], big-eyed herring [Harengula zunasi], hair tail [Trichiurus japonica] viscera, and shrimp [Acetes chinensis] pastes were compared by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction/GC/MS. A total of 155 volatile compounds were detected. Of these, 111 were positively identified, consisting mainly of aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters, aromatics, and nitrogen- and sulphur-containing compounds. Lipid-derived components, such as aldehydes, alcohols, and esters, comprised the majority of volatile compounds from fish pastes, while heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds, such as pyrazines, were predominant in shrimp paste.

Record 65 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1995-04-A0041
TI: Aeration-controlled formation of acetic acid in heterolactic fermentations.
AU: Adler-Nissen-J; Demain-AL
PY: 1994
SO: Journal-of-Industrial-Microbiology; 13 (6) 335-343, 21 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Controlled aeration of Leuconostoc mesenteroides [isolated from a Korean fermented fish product] was studied as a possible mechanism for control of the formation of acetic acid, a metabolite of major influence on the taste of lactic fermented foods. Fermentations were carried out in small scale in a medium in which growth was limited by the buffer capacity only. Ethanol and acetic acid formed during the fermentation were analysed by rapid head-space GC, and the ratio of the molar concn. of these 2 volatiles quantitatively predicted the balance between the formation of acetic acid and lactic acid. O2 concn. during the fermentation decreased rapidly to zero, indicating that O2 transfer was limited by the volumetric O2 transfer rate (k1aC-*). A linear correlation between k1aC-* and the quantity of acetic acid produced was established. It is suggested that such oxygenated heterolactic fermentation processes should be analysed as fed-batch fermentations with O2 as the limiting substrate. Addition of fructose in limited amounts resulted in the formation of 0.5 mol of acetic acid for each mole of fructose, thus offering an alternative mechanism for controlling acetic acid formation.

Record 66 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1995-01-R0018
TI: Changes in the composition of free amino acids, organic acids and lipids during processing and ripening of 'hatahata-zushi', a fermented fish product of sandfish (Arctoscopus japonicus) and boiled rice.
AU: Chun-Ming-Chang; Ohshima-T; Koizumi-C
PY: 1994
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 66 (1) 75-82, 12 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Changes in the composition of certain chemical components during processing of hatahata-zushi, a Japanese fermented product of sandfish and boiled rice, were investigated. The pH, and moisture and salt contents of the finished product were 4.1, and 552 and 41.0 g kg---1, respectively, on a salt-free dry wt. basis. Concn. of polyamines except histamine increased gradually during fermentation. Contents of free amino acid, especially glutamic acid, alanine, valine, and leucine, increased during fermentation. Lactic acid and acetic acid contents increased markedly during fermentation. Total lipid content of the raw sample was relatively high (385 g kg---1 dry wt. basis). During soaking in water, content of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) markedly decreased, while that of free fatty acids increased. The decreases in PE and PC continued up to the end of fermentation. The triglyceride content decreased to a large extent during the early stages of fermentation and remained almost unchanged thereafter. Lipid deterioration of hatahata-zushi seemed to be due mainly to hydrolysis of lipids by endogeneous and/or exogenous lipolytic enzyme systems.

Record 67 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1994-12-R0005
TI: The study on kinds and utilities of jeot-kal (fermented fish products).
AU: Do-Soon-Deuk; Lee-Young-Mee; Chang-Hak-Gil
PY: 1993
SO: Journal-of-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science; 9 (3) 222-229, 12 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Differences in consumption and use of jeot-kal, a fermented sea food product, in 3 temp. zones of Korea were investigated. 95 different kinds of jeot-kal were found, which were divided into 5 groups as follows: whole fish (46 var.), viscera (11 var.), shellfish (14 var.), molluscs (4 var.),and crustaceans (20 var.). 17 kinds of jeot-kal were found in all regions. Jeot-kal were consumed as side dishes, seasoning instead of soy sauce or vinegar, or as components of a kimchi dish. In kimchi dishes, 49 kinds of jeot-kal were used; myeolchi jeot (self-fermented anchovies) was predominant in the southern area, while saewoo jeot (self-fermented shrimps), gonjenji jeot (self-fermented mysis) and hwangsegi jeot (self-fermented hwangandali) were predominant in the northern and middle areas. The salt content and pH of jeot-kal from the southern area were higher than in any other area. [From En summ.]

Record 68 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1994-10-R0005
TI: Sensory evaluation of fish sauces.
AU: Sanceda-NG; Sanceda-MF; Encanto-VS; Kurata-T; Arakawa-N
PY: 1994
SO: Food-Quality-and-Preference; 5 (3) 179-184, 16 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Sensory analysis of anaerobically and aerobically fermented commercial fish sauces was carried out. Results of evaluation by 2 groups of Filipinos (A and B) and 1 group of Japanese (D) revealed a difference in the aroma and flavour of the fish sauces. However, after several exposures, the difference in aroma became significantly smaller, but flavour remained almost unchanged. Groups A and B (familiar with aerobically fermented fish sauce) preferred the aroma of the aerobic over that of the anaerobic sauce but accepted the flavour of the anaerobic sauce. Group D, who had never known or heard of either of the sauces, had a reverse reaction and preferred the anaerobic over that of the aerobic sauce. Group C (Filipino children) did not like the sauces. In general, fermentation under anaerobic conditions brought changes in the aroma quality of fish sauce during the manufacturing process, to yield an acceptable product.

Record 69 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1994-08-R0018
TI: Production of fish sauce and acceleration of sauce fermentation using proteolytic enzymes.
AU: Ravipim-Chaveesuk; Smith-JP; Simpson-BK
PY: 1993
SO: Journal-of-Aquatic-Food-Product-Technology; 2 (3) 59-77, 21 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: The effect of addition of trypsin and chymotrypsin (0.3%, w/w) at various proportions (100:0, 50:50, and 0:100) on acceleration of fish sauce fermentation using herring as raw material [was investigated]. Results showed that supplementation with trypsin and chymotrypsin significantly increased protein hydrolysis (P less than 0.05). Fish sauces prepared from herring with enzyme supplementation contained significantly more total N, soluble protein, free amino acids and total amino acids compared to fish sauce with no added enzyme (P less than 0.05). Supplementation with trypsin and/or chymotrypsin mixture produced the most favourable results in terms of protein hydrolysis; there was no difference among enzyme treated sauces in terms of free amino acid composition. [Except for] amino acid profile, accelerated fermented fish sauce product had similar chemical and microbiological composition to Nampla, a first grade commercially produced Thai fish sauce. Sensory analysis of products for colour, flavour and aroma indicated that panellists preferred the lighter coloured fish sauce prepared with enzyme supplementation compared to the darker coloured commercially produced Nampla. However, there was no significant preference (P less than 0.05) for aroma and flavour of the enzyme supplemented sauce or Nampla. Results of this study indicate that acceptable fish sauce can be produced from herring; addition of enzymes has the potential to reduce fermentation time to approx. 2 months without compromising product quality.

Record 70 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1994-02-R0047
TI: [Influence of technological factors on autohydrolysis in fish.]
AU: Chan-Tkhi-Zung; K''sev-D
PY: 1993
SO: Khranitelna-Promishlenost; 42 (5/6) 38-40, 8 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Effects of temp. (22 or 37 degree C) and salt (20, 25 or 35% NaCl) on autohydrolysis in fish (sardine (Sardinia pilchardus) and scad (Trachurus spp.)) were studied with the aim of intensifying the process for manufacture of fermented fish sauces. Various parameters including N fractions, pH, DM, sensory quality and degree of hydrolysis were determined on days 180 and 360 of fermentation. Differences in these parameters for scad and sardine sauces prepared using the different salt and temp. regimes are discussed. Fish sauce prepared with 20% NaCl had the highest content of amino and total N; other parameters were not markedly affected by NaCl content. Fermentation at the higher temp. reduced the fermentation period to 5-6 months; fish fermented at 22 degree C still had an after taste after 6 months. Sardine sauces were regarded as having a more pleasant odour than scad sauces.

Record 71 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1994-02-R0011
TI: Effects of processing and storage on some chemical characteristics and lipid composition of a Ghanaian fermented fish product.
AU: Yankah-VV; Ohshima-T; Koizumi-C
PY: 1993
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 63 (2) 227-235, 27 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Momoni is a Ghanaian fermented fish product used as a condiment for flavouring soups and stews and also as the main protein in a meal. Effects of traditional processing methods on composition of the lipids, free amino acids and organic acids of momoni made using Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) were investigated. Moisture content decreased from 751 to 505 g kg---1 after fermentation for 3 days, and then remained almost constant during storage. Changes in pH were minimal, although a gradual decrease was observed from 6.2 to 5.9 after 2 months of storage. Salt accumulation due to salting increased up to 325 g kg---1 but remained almost unchanged during storage. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) increased to 0.8 g kg---1 on a salt-free DM basis, after 2 months storage. Most free amino acids, except histidine, which was present in the highest concn. in the samples, increased during processing and subsequent storage. However, no detectable amount of histamine was formed after 2 months of storage. Lactic acid, the most prominent organic acid (3.12 g kg---1 salt-free DM) in the raw materials, decreased during processing and storage. Diphosphatidylglycerol, free fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine increased. Processing resulted in depletion of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol with decreases in triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Proportion of the extracted total lipids present as polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased; this was accompanied by increases in the proportions of saturated fatty acids, indicating a high degree of oxidation. Peroxide value and TBA value increased on fermentation, confirming the observed oxidation, but decreased during storage. Although oxidation was extensive, following hygienic and good manufacturing practices, this method could prevent spoilage taking place in fish if good-quality raw materials are used. [From En summ.]

Record 72 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1993-10-R0023
TI: Staphylococcus piscifermentans sp. nov., from fermented fish in Thailand.
AU: Tanasupawat-S; Hashimoto-Y; Ezaki-T; Kozaki-M; Komagata-K
PY: 1992
SO: International-Journal-of-Systematic-Bacteriology; 42 (4) 577-581, 33 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: New coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from fermented fish in Thailand. These organisms were differentiated from other Staphylococcus species on the basis of DNA relatedness and biochemical characteristics. S. piscifermentans sp. nov. is described [phenotype characteristics, cellular fatty acid composition, quinone systems, cell wall peptidoglycan and lactic acid isomer synthesis], and the type strain is strain SK03 (= NRIC 1817 = JCM 6057 = TISTR 824).

Record 73 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1993-09-R0034
TI: Fermented fish in Africa. A study on processing, marketing and consumption.
AU: Essuman-KM
PY: 1992
SO: FAO-Fisheries-Technical-Paper; No. 329, vi + 80pp., many ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: This technical paper is based on surveys carried out in Burundi, Chad, Ivory Coast, the Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, the Sudan and Uganda to identify the various types of fermented fish products, their processing characteristics and economic importance. Aspects covered include: literature review of the fermentation process and quality/marketing aspects; fish processing characteristics (including fish sources, traditional methods of fermentation, fermentation tanks and driers, fish quality and safety, packaging); socio-economic evaluation of fermented fish; distribution and marketing; consumer attitudes to fishery products; and current areas of research. Sanitary conditions of fermented fish production were generally found to be poor and processing methods were not standardized. In the light of the observations made, recommendations are suggested to improve quality in order to enhance intra-regional trade in fish products.

Record 74 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1993-09-A0071
TI: The zinc, calcium, copper, manganese, nonstarch polysaccharide and phytate content of seventy-eight locally grown and prepared African foods.
AU: Ferguson-EL; Gibson-RS; Opare-Obisaw-C; Osei-Opare-F; Stephen-AM; Lehrfeld-J; Thompson-LU
PY: 1993
SO: Journal-of-Food-Composition-and-Analysis; 6 (1) 87-99, many ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Minerals, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and phytate contents of locally grown and prepared African foods were determined. Foods studied included: fish (anchovy, mackerel, tuna, tilapia); meat; vegetables (amaranth leaves, cassava, okra, cocoyam, beans, plantains, peppers, sweet pototoes); cereals (cornflour, sorghum, rice, corn grits, corn dough, wheat flour dough); nuts (peanuts); and prepared foods (smoked fish, fermented kapok seeds, porridge, palmnut soup, stews). Legumes, meat, fresh fish and smoked fish contained highest levels of minerals. Peanuts and bean-cakes had highest levels of NSP, while legumes and cereals (especially unfermented or unrefined cereals) contained highest phytate levels. Variability in Zn and Ca contents of similar soups and stews was due to differences in proportions of ingredients used in preparation. Addition of peanuts, fermented locust bean seeds and fermented kapok seeds increased minerals content of soups and stews. It was suggested that fermentation of foods be promoted to maximize hydrolysis of phytic acid in cereal products, staple foods in African countries.

Record 75 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1993-05-T0032
TI: [Survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in protein rich seasonings.] Studien zum Ueberleben von Yersinia enterocolitica in prteinreichen Wuerzmitteln.
AU: Toan-PV; Beutling-D
PY: 1993
SO: Archiv-fuer-Lebensmittelhygiene; 44 (1) 13-19, many ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Samples of 6 types of protein-rich seasoning sauces from Asia (including fermented fish sauces and soy sauce) and 2 from Germany (wheat based sauce) containing 14-30% NaCl were inoculated with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:3 or 0:9 at approx. 10-7 cfu/ml. Seasonings were stored at 4, 15, 22 and 30 degree C and examined for survival of Y. enterocolitica during storage for _21 days. Y. enterocolitica was unable to multiply in the investigated seasonings and survival ability decreased with increasing storage temp. Yersinia was reisolated from samples stored at 4 degree C after 12 days but was only detectable in samples stored at 30 degree C for less than 48 h.

Record 76 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1993-03-R0018
TI: Characterization of proteases produced by newly isolated and identified proteolytic microorganisms from fermented fish (Budu).
AU: Choorit-W; Prasertsan-P
PY: 1992
SO: World-Journal-of-Microbiology-&-Biotechnology; 8 (3) 284-286, 12 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Eight different strains of Bacillus were isolated from fermented fish (budu) and their proteolytic enzyme activites were determined after 18 h cultivation at 35 degree C. 4 isolates possessed high proteinase activities. Optimum pH for these enzymes was 7.0-8.0 and optimal temp. was 55 degree C. Proteinases retained 40% of original activity after 20 min at 55 degree C but lost all activity at 65 degree C. 3 of the 4 isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis, the fourth as Bacillus licheniformis.

Record 77 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1993-02-R0024
TI: Oxygen effect on volatile acids formation during fermentation in manufacture of fish sauce.
AU: Sanceda-NG; Kurata-T; Suzuki-Y; Arakawa-N
PY: 1992
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 57 (5) 1120-1122, 1135, 18 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: [Effects of O2 on volatile fatty acids formation during fish sauce fermentation were investigated.] Volatile acids of aerobically and anaerobically fermented fish sauces were investigated using GC and GC-MS. There was no significant difference in pH values of the 2 types of sauces. Aerobically fermented sauce had significantly higher concn. of volatile acids than the anaerobically fermented one. Sensory evaluation revealed that the aroma of anaerobically fermented sauce was a little sweet, less acidic and less rancid than aerobically made sauce which was sharp and cheesy. Thus, fermentation under anaerobic conditions altered aroma quality of the sauce during manufacturing, yielding an acceptable product.

Record 78 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1992-11-G0010
TI: Lactic acid bacteria in a fermented fishery product, 'burong bangus'.
AU: Olympia-M; Ono-H; Shinmyo-A; Takano-M
PY: 1992
SO: Journal-of-Fermentation-and-Bioengineering; 73 (3) 193-197, 17 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Analyses of the microflora of burong bangus, a traditional fermented fish [Chanos chanos] and rice product of the Philippines, revealed that a sequential type of fermentation with overlapping growth takes place. Streptococcus initiated the fermentation process and generally persisted up to the latter part of the fermentation. Pediococcus appeared next, but comprised only a small % of the microflora. Both Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus appeared on the 3rd day and were generally present up to the end of the fermentation, with Lactobacillus predominating among the microflora in the final days. In the course of characterizing the lactic acid bacteria involved in the fermenting rice-fish mixture, some isolates were found to be capable of hydrolysing starch. These were revealed to be Gram-positive, rod-shaped and catalase negative. Tentative identification of one of the isolates, L137, showed that this strain possesses very similar characteristics to those of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis. The % G + C of L137 was 45.2 while those of L. plantarum and L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis are 45.1 and 45.0, resp. However, L137 differs from the other 2 in its ability to utilize starch.

Record 79 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1992-09-R0028
TI: Chemical components of fermented fish products.
AU: Mizutani-T; Kimizuka-A; Ruddle-K; Ishige-N
PY: 1992
SO: Journal-of-Food-Composition-and-Analysis; 5 (2) 152-159, 11 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Fermented fish sauces, made by pickling fish and small shrimps with salt and fermenting for several months, have a long history of use in Southeast Asia, where they constitute major side dishes and condiments in many cuisines. Chemical components of 47 fish sauces (classified into 7 groups, namely fish sauce, shrimp paste, shrimp sauce, fish paste, fish shiokara, shrimp shiokara, and narezushi) collected from 11 Asian countries were analysed and compared with published data for that of fermented plant materials. Components found in fish sauce and shrimp paste were similar to those found in soy sauce and soybean paste. Fish products contained no sour or sweet substances in contrast to the soy products; however, both products were salty and contained amino acids. No major differences were found in the umami (good tasting) amino acids which were found among the fish sauces. Glutamic acid, closely related to umami substances, was found to be a relatively stable amino acid which did not suffer from any secondary decomposition during fermentation.

Record 80 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1992-08-A0090
TI: Utilization of tropical foods: animal products.
AU: [Editor]
CA: Food & Agriculture Organization
PY: 1990
SO: viii + 49pp. ISBN 92-5-102878
DT: Book
AB: This book on utilization of tropical animal foods is No. 47/8 in the series of FAO Food and Nutrition Papers. It is intended for training and reference purposes. The book consists of the following chapters: Animal products, including information on animal products in tropical diets, wild and domesticated animals as meat sources and processing and preservation of animal foods in the tropics (pp. 1-14); Meat (preservation by smoking, curing, drying and fermentation) (pp. 15-20); Fish (use in tropical diets, preservation, traditional processing in W. Africa, fermentation, production of fish sauces and pastes, fermented fish pastes in SE Asia, fermented fish pieces and whole fish products) (pp. 21-40); and Milk products (role in tropical diets, preparation of cheese, production of butter and buttermilk, evaporated milk products) (pp. 41-46). A 1p. index of scientific names is included.

Record 81 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1992-04-R0017
TI: Mince from low-cost fish species.
AU: Venugopal-V
PY: 1992
SO: Trends-in-Food-Science-&-Technology; 3 (1) 2-5, 42 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Fish, which provide a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, are becoming increasingly popular in the human diet, and there is a need for new approaches to meeting the growing demand for fish products. Development of value-added products such as protein hydrolysates and surimi-based, extrusion-cooked and fermented fish products from mince recovered from the mechanical deboning of low-cost fish species is discussed. It is concluded that commercialization of new products depends on availability and cost of raw material, optimization of process parameters, and quality control and storage stability of the final products. [From En summ.]

Record 82 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1992-01-C0110
TI: Biogenic amines in cheese and other fermented foods: a review.
AU: Stratton-JE; Hutkins-RW; TaylorSL
PY: 1991
SO: Journal-of-Food-Protection; 54 (6) 460-470, 101 ref.
DT: Review
AB: Biogenic amines (particularly histamine) in foods are reviewed under the following headings: Clinical aspects and toxicology (symptomology, constraints to surveillance, histamine metabolism toxicity and role of potentiators, putrefactive amines, pharmaceutical agents); Fermented foods containing histamine (cheese, formation of other biogenic amines in cheese, fermented beverages, fermented dry sausage, fermented vegetables, miso, soy sauce and related foods, fermented fish products); Formation of histamine and its control (histidine decarboxylase, histamine-producing bacteria, control of histamine formation); Analysis of histamine (AOAC procedure, rapid methods, detn. of histamine-producing bacteria); and Histamine regulation.

Record 83 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1991-12-T0014
TI: Food applications of sorbic acid and its salts.
AU: Lueck-E
PY: 1990
SO: Food-Additives-and-Contaminants; 7 (5) 711-715, 3 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: A general survey of the numerous uses of sorbic acid in the food sector is given [covering fat emulsions, cheese, meat and fish, fermented and pickled vegetables, tomato products, semi-dried fruit, fruit juices and fruit syrups, fruit preserves, drinks, bakery goods and sugar confectionery]. Some fields of application are discussed that are either unimportant or not permitted in the UK. Because of their physiological inertness, their effectiveness even in the weakly acid pH range and their neutral taste, sorbic acid and its salts (the most commonly used products are sorbic acid itself (E200) and potassium sorbate (E202)) and have become leading preservatives in the food sector throughout the world over the past 30 yr. In many countries sodium sorbate (E201) and calcium sorbate (E203) are also permitted. Sorbic acid is sparingly soluble in water, sodium sorbate has better solubility, and potassium sorbate is very freely soluble and can be used to produce 50% stock solutions [which remain stable for some time]. Sodium sorbate in solid forms is unstable and very rapidly undergoes oxidation in exposure to atmospheric O2, and is therefore not produced on industrial scale. Calcium sorbate is used in the manufacture of fungistatic wrapper because it is highly stable to oxidation, but this use is very limited. Sorbic acid and sorbates can be directly added into the product. Products can be dipped or sprayed with aqueous solutions of sorbates. Dusting of food with dry sorbic acid is also possible but less recommended because sorbic acid irritates the skin and mucous membranes.

Record 84 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1991-09-R0042
TI: [Occurence of Listeria monocytogenes in imported smoked and fermented fish.] Zum Vorkommen von Listeria monocytogenes in importierten geraeucherten und fermentierten Fischen.
AU: Jemmi-T
PY: 1990
SO: Archiv-fuer-Lebensmittelhygiene; 41 (5) 107-109, many ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Samples (496) of hot-smoked fish (eel, cod, trout, herring, mackerel, Schillerlocken and sprats), 324 of cold-smoked fish (halibut, haddock, salmon) and 89 of fermented fish (gravad salmon, marinated herring) were examined for the presence of L. monocytogenes. It was detected in 111 (12.2%) of all samples, in 44 (8.9%) hot-smoked, 44 (13.6%) cold-smoked and 23 (25.8%) fermented fish samples. Serotype 1/2b was found in 65 (58.6%), 1/2a in 22 (19.8%) and 4b in 16 (14.4%) samples. The most highly contaminated fish sp. were hot-smoked trout and herrings (Brickling), cold-smoked halibut and salmon and both types of marinated fish.

Record 85 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1991-06-G0011
TI: [Characteristics of saba-narezushi mackerel and pickles produced in the Wakasa region of Fukui prefecture. Chemical changes in the fermentation medium and mackerel meat during fermentation and the production of volatile components.]
AU: Kariya-Y; Kiuchi-R; Mikami-N; Doishita-H; Kodama-K
PY: 1990
SO: Journal-of-Japanese-Society-of-Nutrition-and-Food-Science-[Nihon-Eiyo-Shokuryo-Gakkai-shi]; 43 (1) 43-48, 7 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Saba-narezushi (mackerel and pickles), a fermented fish product from the Wakasa bay area of Fukui prefecture, was prepared in the laboratory using desalted heshiko (salted mackerel cured with rice bran), koji (rice malt) and boiled rice according to the traditional process, and analysed for its contents of reducing sugar, organic acids, amino acids, alcohols and esters. After fermentation, reducing sugar accounted for about 4.2% by wt. of the fermentation medium, organic acids for about 1%, and amino acids about 0.95%. Lactic acid and citric acid were found as the major acids and acetic acid as a minor volatile acid. Major volatile compounds found by GC in the fermentation medium were ethanol and ethyl acetate.

Record 86 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1990-12-R0027
TI: [Rakfisk - staphylococcal food poisoning.]
AU: Ewald-S; Melhuus-B
PY: 1989
SO: Norsk-Veterinaertidsskrift; 101 (2) 127
DT: Journal-Article
AB: A severe case of food poisoning after consumption of 'rakfisk' (a fermented fish product) is reported. No food poisoning bacteria were detected in the fish; however, examination by ELISA revealed the presence of relatively high levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin types B and D.

Record 87 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1990-11-T0018
TI: Overall quality and sensory acceptance of a lysine-fortified fish sauce.
AU: Sanceda-NG; Kurata-T; Arakawa-N
PY: 1990
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 55 (4) 983-988, 48 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: The feasibility of making [fermented] fish sauce with added lysine was studied. A difference was found in quality of the volatile compounds detected from the control and from the lysine-added samples. High concn. of lysine did not significantly affect acceptability due to aroma but reduced acceptability of flavour and colour, as assessed by 20 panelists using 5-point hedonic scales. Addition of lysine could feasibly increase protein level of fish sauce. Sensory evaluation in terms of overall quality showed that addition of up to 2.0% lysine was quite acceptable.

Record 88 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1990-09-R0010
TI: The influence of oxygen accessibility on the growth of yeast in fish/rice fermentation.
AU: Avhurhi-JB; Owens-JD
PY: 1990
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 27 (2) 104-106, 15 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: Fish (mackerel)/rice mixture (1:3.6) was prepared and fermented between 12 and 21 days using 1 and 5% fermented fish/rice inoculum levels under 3 methods of air exclusion, viz. layering with paraffin oil (PO), paraffin wax (PW) and fermentation lock alone (control). Yeast growth was recorded under all experimental conditions. No growth was recorded by the 12th day in the control. There was no significant difference in yeast counts between PO, PW and control. Yeasty flavour developed in bottles exposed to air, while the characteristic acid aroma was exhibited by other systems.

Record 89 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
AN: 1990-09-A0082
TI: Chemical and amino acid composition of four traditional foods consumed in the Arab Gulf states.
AU: Musaiger-AO; Al-Mohizea-IS; Al-Kanhal-MA; Jaidah-JH
PY: 1990
SO: Food-Chemistry; 36 (3) 181-189, 18 ref.
DT: Journal-Article
AB: The following 4 foods commonly consumed in the Arabian Gulf states were analysed for proximate composition (moisture, protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrates, energy), minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, P, Mn) and amino acids: khubez-tamer (date bread); khubez-jebin (cheese bread); tareeh (conc. fermented fish sauce); mehiawah (fermented fish sauce). Preparation methods for the 4 foods are outlined; both sauces are prepared from Indian oil sardine with the addition of spices. Results of the analyses are tabulated. They included the following. Tareeh contained more protein, ash, Ca, Na, Mg, P and Zn than mehiawah but less moisture, fat, carbohydrate, Fe and K. Cheese bread contained more protein, fat, ash, Ca, P and Na than date bread but less Fe, K, Mg, Cu and Zn. The amino acid profiles of the fish sauces were superior to those of the breads. Particular attention is drawn to the high Na contents of the fish sauces.

Record 90 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 89-10-R0032
TI: Traditional fermented fish products with special reference to Thai products.
AU: Prasert-Saisithi
PY: 1987, recd. 1988
SO: ASEAN-Food-Journal; 3 (1) 3-10, 24 ref.
AB: Types of fermented fish products available in Thailand and their processing procedures are outlined. Information is provided on chemical composition and microbiological properties of fermented fish. Tables list fermented fish and products, their production time, fish/salt/carbohydrate ratios, uses and local names in several countries. Some chemical properties of the fermented fish and microorganisms commonly found in them are also tabulated.

Record 91 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 89-09-R0043
TI: Composition and digestibility of fermented fish foods of Manipur.
AU: Sarojnalini-C; Vishwanath-Singh-W
PY: 1988
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 25 (6) 349-351, 15 ref.
AB: The chemical composition, total bacterial counts and digestibility of (i) Hentak and (ii) Ngari, 2 fermented fish foods consumed in Manipur, were determined. The compositions of (i) and (ii) were, resp.: cholesterol, 2.67 and 8.37 mg/g; Ca, 12.60 and 6.88 mg/g; Fe, 1.29 and 0.51 mg/g; and total viable bacterial counts, 4.8 x 10-8 and 5.0 x 10-7 cells/g. Pepsin action for 2 h followed by trypsin action for 20 h in vitro digested 71.89 and 82.28% of total protein, liberating 5 and 4 essential amino acids, resp. (i) appears to be a better food in view of its higher Ca, Fe, essential amino acids, lipids and lower cholesterol content.

Record 92 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 89-09-R0028
TI: Changes in the total oxalate content in the fermentation of fish paste hentak.
AU: Vishwanath-W; Sarojnalini-C
PY: 1989
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 54 (3) 754-755, 8 ref.
AB: [Fresh petioles of Alocasia macrorrhiza are used in preparation of hentak, a fermented fish paste. The plant is unsuitable for human consumption, as it contains calcium oxalate crystals, which cause irritation, but which seem to be destroyed on fermentation.] Total oxalate content of sliced petioles of A. macrorrhiza was reduced by 41.3% on incubation for 7 days at room temp. (18-23 degree C). When incubated after mixing with an equal wt. of powdered sundried fish (Esomus danricus), for preparation of hentak, oxalate level was reduced by 84.4%. This loss was greatly inhibited by antibiotics. Some specific microorganisms [notably fungi] might be important in oxalate destruction.

Record 93 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 89-07-R0016
TI: Changes in some chemical characteristics and lipid composition of salted fermented bouri fish muscle (Mugil cephalus).
AU: El-Sebaiy-LA; Metwalli-SM
PY: 1989
SO: Food-Chemistry; 31 (1) 41-50, 22 ref.
AB: Small (mean wt. 107.0 g) and large (mean wt. 220.8 g) fresh bouri fish were salted-fermented under non-aerobic conditions for approx. 1 month at room temp. Fresh and salted-fermented fish were then filleted, minced and analysed for chemical composition, particularly lipid composition. Results are tabulated and included the following. Contents of moisture, crude protein, lipid and phospholipid P decreased during salting-fermenting, while contents of NaCl, ash and free fatty acids and the peroxide value increased. Fresh small and large fish contained, resp., 12.60 and 7.50% fat; corresponding figures for salted-fermented fish were 11.20 and 6.30%. Studies of the lipid classes indicated that contents of phospholipids, monoglycerides, triglycerides and hydrocarbons decreased during salting-fermenting, particularly in large fish, while the diglyceride content increased. Studies of fatty acid composition revealed that the ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids decreased during salting-fermenting.

Record 94 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 89-05-R0010
TI: Bacterial flora of fermented fish sauce prepared from sardines in Pakistan.
AU: Zuberi-R; Shamshad-SI; Qadri-RB
PY: 1988
SO: Tropical-Science; 28 (4) 239-246, 23 ref.
AB: Samples of fish sauce were prepared from sardines layered with salt and stored for fermentation at ambient temp. in barrels. Samples were prepared on (i) small and (ii) large scales and examined after (i) 6 and 18, and (ii) 3 and 6 months. A sample of 3-month old (i) was also examined after a further 3 months fermentation in the presence of 10% tartaric acid. Samples were examined for residual aerobic bacterial flora. Results indicate that bacilli predominated, followed by micrococci. The dominant bacillus was Bacillus megaterium, followed by B. licheniformis, B. pumilus and B. cereus. Salt tolerance of Bacillus spp. was not constant, but varied (0-15% NaCl requirement) among different strains of the same spp.

Record 95 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 88-02-R0015
TI: [Technical aspects of processed marine foods. Packaging (of e.g. fish sausage, kamaboko, dried and fermented fish strips).]
AU: Yokoyama-M
PY: 1987
SO: Food-Industry-[Shokuhin-Kogyo]; 30 (8) 30-38, 18 ref.

Record 96 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 87-09-R0020
TI: [Hygiene of `rakorret' fermented fish.]
AU: Kjos-Hanssen-B
PY: 1986
SO: Norsk-Veterinaertidsskrift; 98 (2) 121-125, 20 ref.
AB: Preparation and characteristics of rakorret are described, with reference to use of dry-salting and brining processes. Lactic acid bacteria predominate in the fermented fish; Staphylococcus epidermidis also occurs in the brine. pH of the fermented product is approx. 6.5. The botulism hazard is considered, with special reference to the role of fermentation temp. and NaCl concn. in prevention of growth and toxin formation by Cl. botulinium. Toxin formation was observed at 4 degree C/0-2% NaCl, 10 degree C/0-4% NaCl and 21 degree C/0-6% NaCl.

Record 97 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 87-08-R0023
TI: [Studies on the processing of low salt fermented sea foods. VI. Taste compounds of low salt fermented anchovy and yellow corvenia.]
AU: Cha-YJ; Lee-EH
PY: 1985
SO: Bulletin-of-the-Korean-Fisheries-Society; 18 (4) 325-332, 16 ref.
AB: The major amino acids in fermented anchovy after 60 days fermentation were lysine, alanine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, histidine, threonine and glycine, while those in fermented yellow corvenia after 90 days fermentation were lysine, leucine, alanine, valine threonine, isoleucine, glutamic acid and methionine. These amino acids comprised 57% of the total extractive N content for fermented anchovy and 41% for fermented yellow corvenia, resp. The results indicated that principal taste compounds for both products were free amino acids, and that nucleotides and their related compounds as well as total creatinine also played a role. There was little difference between taste compounds of low salt fermented fish and those of conventional fermented fish irrespective of fish sp. [See FSTA (1985) 17 4R82 for part III.]

Record 98 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 87-08-R0006
TI: Fermentation parameters involved in the production of lactic acid preserved fish-glucose substrates.
AU: Adams-MR; Cooke-RD; Twiddy-DR
PY: 1987
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Science-&-Technology; 22 (2) 105-114, 19 ref.
AB: Lactic fermented fish products are common in S. E. Asia. The composition and quality of the products vary considerably, since they are usually produced on a small scale and the fermentation of the fish-salt-carbohydrate mixtures depends on the natural microflora. A minced fish-salt-glucose system was used to evaluate the factors that favour a rapid lactic fermentation. Studies with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus indicated that fermentation rates increased in the range 0-5% w/w of glucose or sucrose, whereas increasing the salt concn. from, 0 to 6% slowed the rate of pH decrease. 1% salt and 4% glucose were used for subsequent studies. The nature of the gas atm during incubation had little effect on fermentation rate, and chemical modification of the initial substrate pH with lactic, acetic or citric acid did not assist lactic fermentation. Incubation temp. of 15, 24, 30 and 37 degree C were evaluated: the lactic acid bacterial count rarely exceeded the total spoiler count by greater than 10x during the first 2 days (although it subsequently increased). Consequently reduction of the pH to less than 4.5 within the first 2 days was difficult to achieve. The use of cooked fish minces gave only slight changes in the fermentation rate.

Record 99 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 87-07-G0006
TI: [Use of non-European fermented foods in the Austrian market.] Nutzung aussereuropaeischer, fermentierter Lebensmittel fuer heimische Zwecke.
AU: Berghofer-E
PY: 1987
SO: Ernaehrung-; 11 (1) 14-22, 45 ref.
AB: This review-type article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of fermented foods (extended shelf-life, effects on nutritional value) and generally divides all fermented foods into 7 groups i.e. alcoholic beverages, vinegar, fermented milk and dairy products combined with plant materials, fermented vegetables (e.g. kimchi), fermented fish and meat products, fermented plant foods, and foods fermented by inherent enzymes (e.g. malt, sprouted seeds). The traditional kishk production technique was modified into a large scale process, producing an extruded kishk snack. Adaptation of tempeh production to domestic conditions is described, the raw material being Austrian field beans (instead of the traditional soybeans). The tempeh produced was preferred to soybean tempeh in trials. However, as the product is consumed fresh (traditionally within 24 h) and has low shelf-life further trials are currently in progress to make a storage-stable tempeh, e.g. using sterilization, or to use tempeh as a food flavour enhancer.

Record 100 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 87-05-R0060
TI: Novel products from underutilized fish using combined processing technology.
AU: Karmas-E; Lauber-E
PY: 1987
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 52 (1) 7-9, 13 ref.
AB: Mincing or surimi-processing, followed by fermentation, extrusion and intermediate moisture food (IMF) processing were combined to investigate new ways to create fish protein based snack foods. A dough of fermented fish (minced or surimi), wheat flour, corn starch, and water was extruded and subsequently dried, resulting in an IMF product at pH 5.2, aw 0.90 and moisture about 30%. The products had a chewy texture, were shelf-stable and could be processed into flavoured, high-protein snack foods.

Record 101 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 87-02-R0011
TI: Testing a solar dome fish dryer in the Gambia.
AU: Curran-CA; N'jai-AE; Nerquaye-Tetteh-G; Diouf-N
PY: 1986
SO: FAO-Fisheries-Report; No. 329 (Suppl.), 173-184, 23 ref.
DT: Lecture
AB: In an attempt to improve processing and reduce blow-fly infestation, a 1-ton prototype solar dome dryer was constructed and tested. Several drying trials were carried out using 5 different fish spp. Performance of the dryer was compared with sun drying on traditional, flat chicken wire and sloping chicken wire racks. The solar dome did not perform as well as expected. Very similar drying rates were obtained for sun and solar dome drying. The poor performance was attributed to the nature of the raw material (i.e. fermented fish) used to prepare guedja (the local dried product), and the weather. Blow-fly infestation was a problem if sufficient care was not taken to prevent entry of flies into the dryer. Low initial temp. had to be used in the dome to avoid cooking the fragile raw material, so that improved drying rates could not be achieved. These temp. were too low to kill either the adult blow-flies or larvae. [See FSTA (1987) 19 2R5.]

Record 102 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 86-09-R0006
TI: Yeast flora in red burong isda, a fermented fish food in the Philippines.
AU: Sakai-H; Caldo-GA; Kozaki-M
PY: 1983
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-Science-[Tokyo-Nogyo-Daigaku-Nogatu-Shuho]; 28 (2) 181-185, 5 ref.
AB: The role of yeasts in determining the flavour and quality of burong isda, a fermented fish food [see preceding abstr.] was investigated by isolation from samples of red burong isda made with 5 different fish spp. Viable yeast counts were 10-6-10-8/g and culture yielded 484 isolates which were divided into 24 groups on the basis of physiological and morphological characters. Dominant yeasts in all isolates were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Torulopsis mogii, Pichia vini and P. strasburgensis. T. mogii and P. vini were found only in burong made with Tilapia nilotica, probably due to the higher salt content of this burong (5.4% vs. 1.8-2.1% for other samples). It is concluded that the yeast flora arises due to chance contamination and that the variations are responsible for differences in flavour from product to product.

Record 103 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 86-09-R0005
TI: The fermented fish food, burong isda, in the Philippines.
AU: Sakai-H; Caldo-GA; Kozaki-M
PY: 1983
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-Science-[Tokyo-Nogyo-Daigaku-Nogatu-Shuho]; 28 (1) 138-144, 2 ref.
AB: Burong isda is a fermented fish/rice mixture prepared in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines, using several different fish spp. Major types of burong isda are red and white; the former is made with rice coloured by angkak, i.e. rice fermented with red mould, Monascus purpureus. Cleaned fish are salted for 3-6 h, mixed with cooked rice and fermented in jars for 1-2 wk. Chemical and microbiological analyses of several burong isda samples are reported. pH of all samples was 3.0-4.5, NaCl content varied between methods of manufacture. Counts of acid-forming bacteria were 10-7-10-9/g, and yeasts 10-6-10-8/g.

Record 104 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 85-11-R0016
TI: [Fermented fish products in Scandinavia.]
AU: Knochel-S
PY: 1983
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Applied-Microbiology-and-Bioengineering; 11 (4) 347-351, 17 ref.
AB: Preservation of fish by fermentation has a long tradition in Scandinavia. Today, however, fermentation is applied only because of the specific and unique organoleptic qualities induced by this process. The final products are highly priced delicacies, often with a small and geographically very limited market. 2 types of fermented fish products, 'gravad fisk' and 'kryddersild', are widely accepted in all Scandinavia. Both products are manufactured industrially using fatty fish as raw material and by adding salt, sugar and spices to either the fillet or the whole (uneviscerated) fish. The products vary greatly in salt content, 'gravad fish' having a rather low (9% NaCl) and 'kryddersild' a higher content (around 21% NaCl) in the water phase during maturation. Manufacture, maturation, storage life, spoilage and possible health hazards of the 2 products are discussed and some future prospects for fish fermentation are briefly considered.

Record 105 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 85-10-B0022
TI: Microbiology of fermented foods. Vol. 2.
AU: Wood-BJB [Editor]
PY: 1985
SO: xx + 306pp. ISBN 0-85334-333-0, many ref.
DT: Book
AB: This publication is the 2nd of the series [see preceding abstr. for volume 1] and includes the following chapters on food fermentation, largely in developing countries. Fermented fish and fish products, by Beddows, C. G. (pp. 1-39, many ref.). Fermented sausages, by Luecke, F. K. (pp. 41-83, many ref.). Tea, coffee and cocoa, by Carr, J. G. (pp. 133-154, 39 ref.). African fermented foods, by Odunfa, S. A. (pp. 155-191, 90 ref.). Food fermentation in the tropics, by Stanton, W. R. (pp. 193-211, 15 ref.). Miscellaneous food-related fermentations, by Wood, B. J. B. (pp. 213-235, 27 ref.). Koji, by Lotong, N. (pp. 237-270, 122 ref.). Strain selection and improvement, by Johnston, J. R. (pp. 271-292, 93 ref.). A 14-pp. subject index to both volumes is included.

Record 106 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 85-09-R0023
TI: Fermented fish products of south east Asia.
AU: Adams-MR; Cooke-RD; Rattagool-P
PY: 1985
SO: Tropical-Science; 25 (1) 61-73, 24 ref.
AB: 2 categories of lactic fermented fish product are discussed in production, nutritional and economic terms, i.e. products preserved by water activity reduction (fish/salt formulations) and those preserved by a combination of water activity reduction and lactic acid generation (fish/salt/carbohydrate formulations) with emphasis on the latter. Products from Thailand considered are: pla-ra, pla-jao, pla-som, pla-jom, som-fak and pla-paeng-daeng; those from the Philippines are burong-isda and balao-balao.

Record 107 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 85-07-R0024
TI: [Practicability of preservation of the fish Curimatus elegans by fermentation.]
AU: Sanchez-L; Lima-U-de-A
PY: 1984
SO: Ciencia-e-Tecnologia-de-Alimentos; 4 (1) 56-67, 18 ref.
AB: Samples of fresh Curimatus elegans (wt. 20-30 g/fish) were used in trials on manufacture of a fermented fish product. Fish were not eviscerated before fermentation. NaCl concn. of 20-40% were used; in some cases, the brine was changed during fermentation. Fermentation was conducted at ambient temp. (14-27 degree C) for 50-221 days. Composition (moisture, ether extract, ash, N x 6.25, NaCl), pH and sensory quality (appearance, colour, odour, texture) were evaluated; tables of results are given. The results show that production of a fermented product with good sensory quality is possible. A NaCl level of P30 is necessary. Protein was lost from the fish into the brine during fermentation.

Record 108 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 85-06-B0002
TI: Pediococcus species and related bacteria found in fermented foods and related materials in Thailand.
AU: Tanasupawat-S; Daengsubha-W
PY: 1983
SO: Journal-of-General-and-Applied-Microbiology; 29 (6) 487-506, 27 ref.
AB: Tetrad-forming cocci were isolated from 17 kinds of fermented fish, meat, vegetables, and other materials in Thailand. Out of 58 strains identified, 22 were Pediococcus pentosaceus, 2 were P. acidilactici, 26 were P. halophilus, 4 were other Pediococcus spp. and 4 were 'Tetracoccus' spp. They were widely distributed in fermented products in Thailand, and play roles in souring and ripening.

Record 109 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 85-03-G0022
TI: Handbook of tropical foods.
AU: Chan-HT Jr [Editor]
PY: 1983
SO: viii + 639pp. ISBN 0-8247-1880-1, many ref.
DT: Book
AB: This book, which is No. 9 in the Food Science Monographs series, attempts to unearth and collect the most recent and available knowledge on selected tropical foods. Each chapter deals with a tropical crop or group of crops. The information in each chapter is arranged under the following headings: botanical description, origin and distribution, and economic and nutritional significance; horticultural aspects (cultivation, harvesting and post harvest handling); biochemical and nutritional composition; and preservation methods (processing, products and uses, product spoilage, quality control). Chapters included are: Amaranth, by O. L. Oke (pp. 1-28, 49 ref.). Aroid root crops: Alocasia, Cyrtosperma, and Amorphophallus, by W. S. Sakai (pp. 29-83, many ref.). Bananas and plantains, by J. Marriott & P. A. Lancaster (pp. 85-143, many ref.). Cassava: production, processing, and utilization, by E. U. Odigboh (pp. 145-200, 94 ref.). Citrus fruits, by S. V. Ting (pp. 201-253, many ref.). Fermented fish products, by F. Magno-Orejana (pp. 255-295, many ref.). Ginger, by R. E. Leverington (pp. 297-350, 90 ref.). Guava, by H. T. Chan, Jr. (pp. 351-359, 22 ref.). Macadamia nuts, by C. G. Cavaletto (pp. 361-397, 57 ref.). Mango, by A. E. Stafford (pp. 399-431, 96 ref.). Palm oil, by K. G. Berger (pp. 433-468, 62 ref.). Papaya, by H. T. Chan, Jr. (pp. 469-488, 53 ref.). Rice in the tropics, by A. P. Mossman (pp. 489-535, 81 ref.). Tropical fruit wines, by T. Nakayama (pp. 537-553, 35 ref.). Yams, by D. G. Coursey (pp. 555-601, 97 ref.).

Record 110 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 85-01-R0016
TI: [Amino acid composition of the major species of coastal fish from Senegal, before and after artisanal preservation treatments.]
AU: Vanbelle-M; Moreau-I; Foulon-M; Vervack-W; Diouf-N; Faye-AA
PY: 1982
SO: Revue-des-Fermentations-et-des-Industries-Alimentaires; 37 (1) 3-12, 9 ref.
AB: The main types of mussel, cartilaginous and teleost fish caught off the Senegalese Coast are listed (with French, local and Latin names) and artisanal preservation techniques are described. Tabulated data give amino acid composition of: 13 fresh fish and 2 fresh molluscs; 8 types of fermented fish; 10 fermented, dried fish; 3 smoked dried fish; 1 cooked and dried fish; 1 salted, dried fish; 2 fermented, 1 fermented, dried or just dried molluscs; and mean values for all fresh fish and all preserved fish. The treatments used have only marginal effects on amino acid composition, but total N contents are reduced by some treatments, especially braising, smoking and drying.

Record 111 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 84-10-R0596
TI: [Processing of manjuba (Anchoviella sp.) by fermentation.]
AU: Andrade-MO-de; Prado-Filho-LGdo
PY: 1981
SO: Solo-; 73 (1) 51-59, 19 ref.
AB: A process was developed for the production of good quality fermented fish using a small sea-water Anchoviella sp. Fish were fermented anaerobically for 35 days in a spiced brine containing benzoic acid and sodium nitrite. After fermentation, fish were eviscerated, filleted and packed in glass jars with the addition of soybean oil. Fermentation of 6 kg lots was carried out in 10 l plastic containers, a scale suitable for farm industry. Results of chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses showed that the product was of good quality.

Record 112 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 84-10-B0147
TI: Food microbiology: advances and prospects.
AU: Roberts-TA; Skinner-FA [Editors]
CA: United Kingdom, Society for Applied Bacteriology
PY: 1983
SO: Society-for-Applied-Bacteriology-Symposium-Series; No. 11, xiv + 394pp. ISBN 0-12-589670-0, many ref.
DT: Conference-proceedings
AB: [Continued from preceding abstr.] New prospects and problems in the beverage industry, by F. W. Beech & R. R. Davenport (pp. 241-256, 85 ref.). Properties of and prospects for cultured dairy foods, by K. M. Shahani & B. A. Friend (pp. 257-269, 33 ref.). Fermented fish and meat products: the present position and future possibilities, by I. Erichsen (pp. 271-286, 49 ref.). Genetic engineering for food and additives, by J. R. Pellon & A. J. Sinskey (pp. 286-300, 22 ref.). The potential for fermentation processes in the food supply, by D. C. Bull & G. L. Solomons (pp. 301-308, 3 ref.). Sampling programmes for the microbiological analysis of food, by D. C. Kilsby & A. C. Baird-Parker (pp. 309-315, 6 ref.). Guidelines, specifications and standards for foods, by B. Simonsen (pp. 317-331, 9 ref.). Food microbiology into the twenty-first century - a Delphi forecast, by B. Jarvis (pp. 333-367, 15 ref.). Abstracts of 22 papers and posters included in the summer conference are also presented (pp. 369-380), and a 14pp. subject index is given.

Record 113 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 84-08-R0489
TI: Safety evaluation of fermented fish and shellfish products. II. Physical contaminants.
AU: Mabesa-RC; Castillo-MM; Bandian-VT
PY: 1983
SO: Philippine-Journal-of-Science; 112 (1/2) 103-108, 4 ref.
AB: Fermented fish and shellfish products collected from different regions of the Philippines from Dec. 1980 to Dec. 1981 were analysed microscopically for physical contaminants. The most common items found were seaweed parts and stones. Insect parts and leaf stems ranked next while scraps and hair were occasionally detected. [See preceding abstr. for part I.]

Record 114 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 84-08-R0488
TI: Safety evaluation of fermented fish and shellfish products. I. Microbiological contaminants.
AU: Mabesa-RC; Castillo-MM; Revilla-SV; Bandian-VT
PY: 1983
SO: Philippine-Journal-of-Science; 112 (1/2) 91-102, 13 ref.
AB: Total plate counts and specific tests for indicator organisms were performed on fermented fish and shellfish samples collected from different regions of the Philippines from Dec. 1980 to Dec. 1981. Microorganisms of public health significance detected and enumerated were faecal coliforms, staphylococci, salmonellae and vibrios. Coliforms predominated in many of the samples, staphylococci occurred moderately, while salmonellae and vibrios were only occasionally detected. Samples from the Bicol and Visayas region were grossly contaminated while those from Northern Luzon were less contaminated.

Record 115 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 84-04-R0256
TI: Chemical characterization and sensory evaluation of dietary sodium-potassium fish sauce.
AU: Chayovan-S; Rao-RM; Liuzzo-JA; Khan-MA
PY: 1983
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 31 (4) 859-863, 38 ref.
AB: Uneviscerated ground fish (flounder and trout with 1.6 and 9.2% fat, resp.) were fermented in a mixture of sodium and potassium salts in different fish to salt ratios. Desired ratios of these salts in the fermented fish sauce were obtained by mixing appropriate vol. of individual salt-based sauce. Chemical analyses included total and ammonia N, salt, pH, carbonyls, amines, and amino acids. In all sauce samples mumol/l concn. of carbonyls such as butanal, octanol, 2,4-decadienal, 2-undecenal, tetradecanal and amines (mono-, di-, and trimethylamine) were obtained. Amino acids such as lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid and threonine ranged in concn. between 10---4 and 10---3 mmol/l of sauce. The pH of sauce made from flounder and trout ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 and 4.9 to 5.6, resp. Sensory analyses indicated that a mixture of NaCl and KCl (NaCl:KCl = 50:50) could act as replacement for NaCl generally used in fish sauce fermentation.

Record 116 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 83-11-R0824
TI: [Bacteriology of fermented fish.]
AU: Kandji-P; Conway-J
PY: 1982
SO: FAO-Fisheries-Report; No. 268 (Suppl.), 84-93, 8 ref.
DT: Lecture
AB: The microbial flora of 'guedj' (dried fermented fish produced in Senegal) was studied from the fresh fish to the finished product. Tabulated data show the bacteriological quality of sea water, freshly landed fish, and guedj from artisanal production, as well as the lactic flora. The main organisms on fresh fish were mesophilic, psychrotropic and acidophilic aerobes (10-7, 10-6 and 10-6/g resp.), replaced during fermentation by lactic bacteria, chiefly Lactobacillus plantarum. Total count on artisanal guedj was 10 000/g with no coliforms, salmonella or pathogenic staphylococci, and less than 10/g of faecal streptococci and sulphite-reducing clostridia. When produced under a solar tent, a hard crust is formed on the outside of the fish which reduces permeability and gas exchange between fish muscle and the atm. This creates anaerobic conditions and decomposition of the flesh, as well as changes in flavour. [See FSTA (1983) 15 11R741.]

Record 117 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 83-08-R0538
TI: Fish handling, preservation and processing in the tropics. II.
AU: Clucas-IJ
PY: 1982
SO: Report,-Tropical-Products-Institute; G145, vii + 144pp. ISBN 0-85954-126-6, many ref.
AB: This report is the second of 2 reports [see FSTA (1982) 14 6R391 for TPI Report G144] which together present 52 lectures for an 8-wk training course suited to people working at middle-management level in both Government and Industry. The information is arranged under the following headings: Salting of fish: salt (pp. 4-6). Salting of fish: methods (pp. 7-8, 3 ref.). Drying of fish: basic principles (pp. 9-10). Drying of fish: methods (pp. 11-12). Smoking of fish (pp. 13-14). Marinades (pp. 15-17). Fermented fish products: a review (pp. 18-22). Boiled fish products (pp. 23-25). Fish canning: theory and practice (pp. 26-37). Freeze-drying (pp. 38-41). Irradiation (pp. 42-47, 3 ref.). Miscellaneous products: crustaceans (pp. 48-52). Miscellaneous aquatic products used as food (pp. 53-55) including frog legs, molluscs, sea cucumbers, fish roes, and turtles. Food by-products (pp. 56-57, 2 ref.) including shark fins, fish entrails, and fish extract. Non-food by-products (pp. 58-64) including fish body oils, fish liver oils, fish skins and scales, fish albumin, swim bladders and turtle products. New and delicatessen products (pp. 65-70, 2 ref.) including fish minces, fish sausage (frying sausage, slicing sausage, Frankfurter sausage, kamaboko, tuna ham), fish balls, fish 'crisps'. Fish meal (pp. 71-77). Fish silage (pp. 78-80). Chemical and physical methods of quality assessment (pp. 81-87, 10 ref.). Organoleptic (sensory) measurement of spoilage (pp. 88-93, 6 ref.). Microbiology of spoilage (pp. 94-97). Microbiology of fish spoilage (pp. 98-100). Public health microbiology (pp. 101-103). International standards for fisheries products (pp. 104-109, 16 ref.). Large-scale fish landing facilities (pp. 110-114). Small-scale landing facilities: design and operation (pp. 115-119). Retail sale facilities (pp. 120-126). Fisheries extension services: their role in rural development (pp. 127-137, 10 ref.). Training in the field (pp. 138-142, 1 ref.). An appendix lists films shown during the course.

Record 118 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 83-07-T0397
TI: Flavor of fermented fish sauce.
AU: McIver-RC; Brooks-RI; Reineccius-GA
PY: 1982
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 30 (6) 1017-1020, 16 ref.
DT: Lecture
AB: Volatile flavour components were studied in commercial Nam-pla, a Thai sauce made from fermenting salted fish for 6-12 months. The sauce was adjusted to pH 2.0 and extracted with diethyl ether to obtain an aqueous layer and an ether layer; the basic fraction was obtained from the aqueous layer and the neutral and acidic fractions were obtained from the other layer by pH adjustment and further ether extraction. Each fraction was examined by GLC on a Carbowax 20M column, and by GLC-MS. Eight acids and 1 lactone constituted 96% of the acidic fraction. The acidic fraction possessed a sharp, cheesy aroma. The neutral fraction possessed a meaty aroma and contained 3 lactones as main components, as well as alcohols and heterocyclic compounds; the only aldehyde identified was benzaldehyde. The aroma of the basic fraction was dominated by ammonia and trimethylamine, which, together with dimethylamine and 2,3-butanediol, constituted the major components. In total, 43 compounds were identified that have not previously been reported as constituents of fish sauce, including 8 acids, 10 alcohols, 6 amines, 7 other N-containing compounds, 4 lactones, 3 carbonyls and 5 S-containing compounds. [See FSTA (1983) 15 7A403.]

Record 119 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 83-05-A0312
TI: [Fifth Brazilian Congress on food science and technology.] V Congresso Brasileiro de ciencia e tecnologia de alimentos.
CA: Brazil, Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos
PY: 1981
SO: 203pp.
DT: Conference-proceedings
AB: [Continued from preceding abstr.] Production of a dry salted shark product containing maize flour and seasonings, by D. A. Barrera & E. J. Geromel (p. 66). Manufacture of cheese from dried milk and butter oil by ultrafiltration, by S. D. A. Vieira (p. 67). Standardization of the fat and defatted dry extract contents of buffalo milk with reconstituted milk, by S. D. A. Vieira & B. S. Neves (p. 68). Apparent seasonal changes in various milk constituents at the start of spring, by E. C. dos Santos, A. T. V. Xavier & L. A. S. dos Passos (p. 69). Hygroscopicity of freeze-dried tropical fruit, by A. W. O. Lima, V. A. Gois & J. Cal-Vidal (p. 70). Evaluation of hygroscopicity of dried fruit and vegetables, by J. Cal-Vidal (p. 71). Chemical treatment of [microbially] contaminated vegetables, by R. Baruffaldi, T. C. Penna, I. A. Machoshvhili & L. E. Abe (p. 72). Effects of storage under ambient conditions on the quality of carrots, by R. Baruffaldi, T. C. V. Penna, A. J. Colombo & R. N. Pitombo (p. 73). Experimental and theoretical determination of thermal diffusivity characteristics of carrots, by G. F. Leonhardt, T. C. V. Penna, R. Baruffaldi & A. J. Colombo (p. 74). Osmotic drying of bananas, by R. R. J. Vahideh & N. Narain (p. 75). Effect of enzyme treatment on juice yield from bananas, by N. Narrain & P. S. Bora (p. 76). Production of concentrated cashew fruit juice, by R. Vieira, M. L. Woolfe, E. M. F. Pires, J. A. Woolfe & N. B. Guerra (p. 77). Industrial use of guava in the form of conserves, by N. B. Guerro, E. M. F. Pires, Z. M. C. de Oliveira, C. P. de Freitas & L. Abramov (p. 78). Scanning electron microscopy studies on starch granules of red kidney beans and bean sprouts, by H. C. Silva & B. S. Luh (p. 79). Behaviour of free amino acids in fermented fish, by L. Sanchez & U. A. Lima (p. 80). Feasibility of preservation of the fish Curimatus elegans by fermentation, by L. Sanchez & U. A. Lima (p. 81-82). Low-cost protein concentrates from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), by M. O. de Andrade, U. A. Lima & A. C. R. Goncalves (p. 83). [Continued in following abstr.]

Record 120 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 83-04-B0073
TI: Bacteriophages of Halobacterium halobium: isolation from fermented fish sauce and primary characterization.
AU: Pauling-C
PY: 1982
SO: Canadian-Journal-of-Microbiology; 28 (8) 916-921, 15 ref.

Record 121 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 83-03-G0169
TI: Indigenous fermented foods.
AU: Ko-Swan-Djien
PY: 1982
SO: Economic-Microbiology; 7, 15-38, 67 ref.
DT: Review
AB: Some aspects of indigenous fermented foods, many of which are almost unknown outside the Orient, are reviewed, with special attention given to the microorganisms and their role in the fermentation process. The indigenous fermented foods are reviewed according to the microorganisms involved in the process. The best known foods fermented by moulds are tempe (from soybeans), oncom (from peanut presscake) and angkak (from rice). Foods fermented by bacteria include fermented vegetable products, fermented fish products (sauces and pastes), fermented seeds (natto und thua-nao from soybeans, dage from oil-rich seeds), fermented starch-rich raw materials (e.g. banku, kenkey, akpler, ogi and agidi from fermented maize, idli, dosa, appam and puto from rice, and gari from cassava), and fermented plant juice (palm wine, and pulque from agave). Foods fermented by a mixture of moulds and yeasts, e.g. using ragi inoculum, include fermented rice, brem (confectionery), rice wine, and tape-ketella (from cassava). Foods firstly fermented by moulds, followed by a fermentation with a mixture of bacteria and yeasts, include soy sauce (shoyu) and other fermented soybean products, e.g. miso, taoco, hamanatto, and tou-chih. Specific aspects of fermented foods, i.e. mould spp., lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and salt, are also discussed. [See FSTA (1983) 15 3G155.]

Record 122 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 82-10-G0697
TI: Beriberi caused by antithiamin factors in food and its prevention.
AU: Vimokesant-S; Kunjara-S; Rungruangsak-K; Nakornchai-S; Panijpan-B
PY: 1982
SO: Annals-of-the-New-York-Academy-of-Sciences; 378, 123-136, 20 ref.
AB: Previous reports on the antithiamin activity (ATA) of various polyphenolic compounds in plants and of thiaminase in raw fish led to a study of the effect of local foods containing ATA on the thiamin status of local Thai people. In northern Thailand, fermented tea leaves are chewed continuously as a stimulant, tea drinking is common, the diet contains large amounts of glutinous rice, raw fermented fish, and vegetables, and betel nut chewing is common. These foods were collected and assayed for ATA, and experiments were carried out with human volunteers to study the effects of these foods on thiamin status, as determined by thiamin pyrophosphate effect (TPPE); results are shown in tables, histograms etc. It is said that 1 g dry tea leaves brewed in 100 ml boiling water for 5 min destroyed 0.21 mg thiamin/h, fermented tea leaves (daily intake approx. 12 g) destroyed 0.93 mg thiamin per g wet wt./h, extract from betel nut chew (average intake 21 g/day) destroyed 0.83 mg thiamin per g wet wt./h, and thiaminase activity of raw fermented fish (consumption approx. 50 g/day) was estimated to contain 4.5 units/g. The data obtained suggest that antithiamin factors in foods could be a precipitating factor in causing thiamin deficiency in humans. However cooking will inactivate thiaminase, and high TPPE resulting from consumption of polyphenols such as tannins could possibly be prevented by delay in the consumption of these compounds after meals or consuming foods high in ascorbic acid along with the meals.

Record 123 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 82-04-R0259
TI: Symposium on coastal aquaculture.
CA: India, Marine Biological Association of India
PY: 1980
SO: vi + 185pp.
DT: Conference-proceedings
AB: Abstracts are given of papers presented at the MBAI Symposium on coastal aquaculture, held in Cochin, India, on 12-18 Jan. 1980. One of the technical sessions dealt with Post-harvest technology and utilization (pp. 169-177). Individual papers include the following. Diversification of fishery products, by N. K. Velankar (pp. 169-170). Development of fish products from low priced fish, by K. Gopakumar & M. R. Nair (p. 170). Canning of edible oysters, by M. Rajendra Badonia (p. 171). A plan for the purification system for farm grown oysters before marketing, by K. Nagappan Nayar, M. E. Rajapandian & D. C. V. Easterson (p. 171). Preliminary studies on preservation and transportation of green mussel Perna viridis, by K. K. Balachandran & P. V. Prabhu (p. 172). Bacteriological status of fresh fish at Veraval, by H. K. Beri (pp. 172-173). Heterotrophic bacteria associated with seaweed, by P. Lakshmanaperumalsamy & A. Purushothaman (p. 173). The bacterial flora of pearlspot Etroplus suratensis caught from Cochin backwaters, by P. K. Surendran & K. Mahadeva Iyer (pp. 173-174). Bacterial flora in the alimentary canal of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), by E. Jeyaseeli Fatima, P. Lakshmanaperumalsamy, D. Chandramohan & R. Natarajn (p. 174). PCBs and pesticides content in cultured cockles in the State of Penang, Malaysia, by P. M. Sivalingam, I. Allapitchay, H. Kojima & T. Yoshida (pp. 174-175). Mixed culture fermentation as a predominant biological phenomenon in the production of fermented fish products, by D. Damodaran Nambudiry (p. 176). Studies on transportation of Chanos chanos, by C. C. Panduranga Rao, T. K. Govindan, S. S. Gupta & D. Imam Khasim Saheb (pp. 176-177). A further 3 papers are abstracted separately [see following 3 abstr.].

Record 124 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 81-03-R0182
TI: Lessons from the past for better future utilization of fish resources.
AU: Horisberger-M
PY: 1979
SO: Nestle-Research-News; 1978/1979, 41-49, 19 ref.
AB: Some of the processes developed for preserving fish and for utilizing fish resources more efficiently are described. Aspects discussed are the historical uses of fish in Assyria, Egypt, Greece, Rome, Europe, America and Africa; nutrition and taboo; and different ways of preserving fish, including fermented fish sauces and pastes (patis and bagoong, nuoc-mam, budu), non-fermented fish paste (surimi, krill paste, lobster extract), fish protein concentrate, fish protein isolate, and spun fish fibres. The use of electrofocusing for the effective identification of fish spp. and to detect the presence of whiting in cod mince is mentioned. Future prospects, including the possibility of applying some of the expertise in processing milk and dairy products to the processing of fish, are also briefly discussed.

Record 125 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 81-02-A0069
TI: [Vitamin B12 in serum, some Thai foods and vitamin B12 absorption in Thailand.]
AU: Areekul-S; Thearawibul-R; Chantachum-Y; Viravan-C
PY: 1979
SO: Journal-of-the-National-Research-Council-of-Thailand; 11 (1) 1-11, 16 ref.
AB: Vitamin B12 contents were determined in some Thai foods, including fish sauce, soy sauce and fermented fish, and in serum of patients with infectious hepatitis, hookworm, amoebic liver abscess, opisthorchis and malaria infection. The results were compared with those of normal subjects. The absorption of vitamin B12 was also determined in some patients, using -5-8Co vitamin B12. The results showed that some patients in the present studies had lower serum vitamin B12 levels and lower absorption of this vitamin than those of the normal subjects. However, they did not show any signs or symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. This could be due to the findings that the normal Thai diets, including fish sauce and fermented fish, contained a considerable amount of vitamin B12 and the stored vitamin B12 in the liver could last for 3-4 yr.

Record 126 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 80-06-R0378
TI: The production of soluble fish protein solution for use in fish sauce manufacture. I. The use of added enzymes.
AU: Beddows-CG; Ardeshir-AG
PY: 1979
SO: Journal-of-Food-Technology; 14 (6) 603-612, 11 ref.
AB: Production of a fish hydrolysate, using plant proteases, which could be added to traditionally fermented fish sauce to increase the total vol. without affecting the overall nutritional quality was investigated. Effect of adding bromelain, papain or ficin, on the rate of hydrolysis and the extent of the conversion of insoluble fish protein, to soluble N was examined. The conditions employed were similar to those used in traditional fish sauce manufacture but both whole and minced Ikanbilis (Stolephorus sp.) were investigated. Measurement of the extent of hydrolysis after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 27, 28 and 35 days at 33 degree C showed that bromelain tended to give slightly better results with some 65% of the protein being hydrolysed. The effect of temp., enzyme, co-enzyme and salt concn. for hydrolysis by bromelain were investigated and the optimum conditions established at the pH normally found in fish sauce production. The hydrolysate produced in 18-21 days was comparable to traditional fish sauce in distribution and concn. of N compounds and had very little aroma. The product could be added to traditional sauce without affecting its quality. [See preceding abstr. for part II.]

Record 127 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 80-06-R0377
TI: The production of soluble fish protein solution for use in fish sauce manufacture. II. The use of acids at ambient temperature.
AU: Beddows-CG; Ardeshir-AG
PY: 1979
SO: Journal-of-Food-Technology; 14 (6) 613-623, 10 ref.
AB: When batches of Ikanbilis were acidified using HCl to pH 2.0-3.5 at 30 degree C, rate and extent of hydrolysis of the fish protein and rate of formation of supernatant liquor were increased. Effect of pH and salt concn. was investigated. Although the presence of salt generally decreased extent of proteolysis, it made the mixtures easier to filter. The optimum conditions were either pH 2.0 and 10% salt (w/w) or pH 3.0 and 15% salt (w/w). The extent of fish protein hydrolysed was comparable to the natural fermentation and concn. and distribution of soluble N were very similar to those obtained in the traditionally produced sauces. This liquor was produced within 6 days. The natural fermentation takes 4-9 months. Use of formic acid was investigated and showed no particular advantage. When the pH of the acid ensiled mixtures was adjusted above 4.2, calcium phosphate precipitated; this was removed by filtration. Effect of adding alkaline ensiled fish to acid ensiled fish mixtures (the pH of which had been re-adjusted) was investigated. The amount of insoluble protein hydrolysed increased to a limited extent. As the solutions produced by acid ensilation had very little aroma or taste but had a high soluble N content, they could be used to add to traditionally prepared fish sauce in order to increase the net vol. which would increase the rate of production. [See following abstr. for part I.]

Record 128 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 80-04-R0225
TI: Biochemical changes occurring during the manufacture of budu.
AU: Beddows-CG; Ardeshir-AG; Johari-bin-Daud-W
PY: 1979
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 30 (11) 1097-1103, 25 ref.
AB: Production of budu, a Malaysian fermented fish sauce was investigated using laboratory-scale fermentation using frozen fresh fish (Stolephorus sp.) and on a commercial scale using fish that had been stored several h at greater than 30 degree C (ambient temp.). Fish or fish macerate was salted and incubated in a humid atm at 30 degree C for 200 days. Max. vol. of supernatant liquor was produced at 140 days; residue was chiefly bone and scales. N solubilization increased with time to a max. of 56% at 200 days; most was complete at 120-130 days. Inclusion of the antibiotic rifampicin showed that the process was independent of any bacteria in the fish. Peptide bonds continued to be hydrolysed in the liquor in the 140-200 day period when liquor vol. did not increase. Supernatant liquor became brown after 60 days and subsequently darkened. Small-scale and commercial processes produced similar (except for volatile acid content) sauces with a cheesy aroma. The final sauce had a pH of 5.6, was saturated with NaCl, contained 1.77% organic N and 0.12% volatile N. 66% of organic N was as amino acids; 75% of volatile N was NH3, the remainder was mainly trimethylamine. Commercially produced budu contained volatile fatty acids, which were present probably as a result of bacterial action prior to salting of fish. Final commercial sauce contained (mg/cm-3) ethanoic 2.1, propanoic 0.12, and n-butanoic acid 0.23. Concn. of the latter 2 acids did not increase during fermentation; concn. of ethanoic acid increased from 1.29 mg/cm-3 initially to a max. of 2.15 after 156 days.

Record 129 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 80-02-R0076
TI: Amines in fermented fish paste.
AU: Fardiaz-D; Markakis-P
PY: 1979
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 44 (5) 1562-1563, 12 ref.
AB: A total of 6 brands of commercial fermented fish paste, representing anchovy, shrimp, prawn and oyster products, was studied for amine content. An ether extract of the paste was treated with trifluoroacetic anhydride to form the N-trifluoroacetyl derivatives of the amines which were analysed by GLC using a column packed with Supelcoport 100/200 mesh coated with 3% SP-2100 using flame ionization detection. Each product showed 7-17 peaks on the chromatograph. 9 amines were tentatively identified on the basis of their retention times, and concn. of these 9 in the 6 products are tabulated, together with concn. of histamine determined by fluorometry. Amines found, in order of highest max. concn., were histamine (64 mg/100 g), 2-phenylethylamine (60 mg/100 g), tyramine (37), dopamine (30), tryptamine (16), ethanolamine (10), octopamine (5), 2-mercaptoethylamine (3.5), cadaverine (3.5) and 2-methylbutylamine (1.3). There were wide variations in concn. of individual amines between pastes, and only histamine was found in all products. Fermented prawn paste had the highest concn. of total amines (227.6 mg/100 g) and fermented oyster paste the lowest (16.3 mg/100 g).

Record 130 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 77-06-A0427
TI: Reactivation mechanisms of thiamine with thermostable factors.
AU: Murata-K; Yamaoka-M; Ichikawa-A
PY: 1976
SO: Journal-of-Nutritional-Science-and-Vitaminology; 22 (suppl.) 7-12, 16 ref.
DT: Lecture
AB: Studies on thermostable thiamin-inactivating factors in foods are discussed. Thiamin inactivating activities of black tea and of fermented fish were lower than those of fern leaf and shellfish respectively. Thiamin inactivation activity and thiamin disulphide formation by various flavones, catechol, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, dihydroxyphenylalanine, haemin, and flavonoids are discussed. Thiamin inactivation activities of extracts of 'shiitake' mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), carrots, coffee, black tea, okra and butter flower (Pentasite japonicus) stalk were small. 2-methyl-4-amino-5-aminomethylpyrimidine was formed during reaction of thiamin with catechol. [See FSTA (1977) 9 6A408.]

Record 131 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 77-06-A0425
TI: Food habits causing thiamine deficiency in humans.
AU: Vimokesant-S; Nakornchai-S; Rungruangsak-K; Dhanamitta-S; Hilker-DM
PY: 1976
SO: Journal-of-Nutritional-Science-and-Vitaminology; 22 (suppl.) 1-2, 6 ref.
DT: Lecture
AB: Dietary habits possibly responsible for thiamin deficiency in Thailand are discussed, with reference to data for anti-thiamin activity of tea, raw fermented fish, betel nuts and vegetables. The results suggest that consumption of foods containing anti-thiamin factors may be responsible for the widespread thiamin deficiency in some regions of Thailand. [See FSTA (1977) 9 6A408.]

Record 132 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 77-03-R0134
TI: Identification of neutral and basic flavor compounds in fermented fish sauce.
AU: Brooks-RI; Reineccius-GA
PY: 1976
SO: Abstracts-of-Papers,-American-Chemical-Society; 172, AGFD 158
AB: Traditional methods of producing fish sauce involve several months of fermentation. Several attempts have been made to accelerate the process but products obtained by accelerated techniques generally have a poor flavour. An attempt was made to identify the volatile neutral and basic flavour compounds of traditionally produced Southeast Asian fish sauce. Neutral and basic fractions were isolated by direct solvent extraction with dichloromethane. Both fractions were analysed by gas chromatography and MS using Carbowax 20M columns. Analysis also included splitting the column effluent and sniffing components as they eluted from the column. Methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, 2-methyl pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, hydroxyvaleric acid lactone and phenol have been identified to date. Lactones quantitatively dominated the flavour profiles, accounting for greater than 75% of the volatiles in the combined neutral and basic fractions.

Record 133 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 76-12-T0672
TI: Sorbic acid as a food preservative.
AU: Luck-E
PY: 1976
SO: International-Flavours-and-Food-Additives; 7 (3) 122-124, 127, 1 ref.
AB: The topic is reviewed under the following headings: history; properties; derivatives; manufacture; analysis; physiological properties; effect in countering microorganisms; and practical uses (including edible fat emulsions, cheese, meat and fish, fermented vegetables, pickled vegetables, tomato products, dried fruit, fruit juices and fruit syrups, drinks, fruit preserves, bakery goods, sugar and sugar confectionery, and packaging materials).

Record 134 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 76-11-R0687
TI: The use of bromelain in the hydrolysis of mackerel and the investigation of fermented fish aroma.
AU: Beddows-CG; Ismail-M; Steinkraus-KH
PY: 1976
SO: Journal-of-Food-Technology; 11 (4) 379-388, 14 ref.
AB: A fish hydrolysate was produced from homogenized mackerel using bromelain to increase the rate and extent of proteolysis. Measurement of the extent of hydrolysis and conversion of insoluble to soluble N compounds after 1, 2, 3, 5 and 14 days of incubation at 38 degree C showed that a hydrolysate having some of the characteristics of an oriental fish sauce could be formed from mackerel within this period with a net protein conversion rate of over 75%, but it was necessary to include a 24 h incubation period prior to the addition of salt. The technique was used for the investigation of the causative agents of aroma production in the mackerel homogenate. Assuming that the proteolysis was still carried out by the protease, the mackerel homogenate was subjected to heat treatment, or mixed with antibiotics, or TCA prior to addition of bromelain. These treatments caused the loss of some of the constituents (associated with oriental fish sauce aroma) which suggests that with mackerel, micro-organisms play a significant role in aroma development. The method could be used for the investigation of sauces prepared from oriental fish; as the causative agents of aroma production might well be different. The bacteria involved with mackerel could easily produce harmful products which were not investigated.

Record 135 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 76-10-R0579
TI: [Studies on the fermentation of fish protein. I. A model design of fermentor.]
AU: Lee-KH; Choi-HY
PY: 1972
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-and-Nutrition; 1 (1) 51-62, 26 ref.
AB: To improve the quality of fermented fish, which are important preserved and seasoned food products, a model fermentor with control devices for temp., pH and agitation was designed. The design gives optimum conditions for enzymic hydrolysis of fish protein as regards temp., pH, viscosity and other factors.

Record 136 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 76-02-R0050
TI: Some flavouring constituents of fermented fish sauces.
AU: Dougan-J; Howard-GE
PY: 1975
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 26 (7) 887-894, 12 ref.
AB: The aroma of fermented fish sauce comprises 3 distinct notes, cheesy, meaty and ammoniacal. Analysis showed that the cheesy odour was produced by lower fatty acids and the ammoniacal odour by ammonia and amines. The meaty aroma was much more complicated and was not analysed, but it was shown that it could be produced by atmospheric oxidation of precursors that were still present in mature sauces. Individual fatty acids were determined in sauce at various stages of fermentation and an hypothesis explaining the origin of the acids is deduced from the results.

Record 137 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 75-11-R0619
TI: Microflora of four fermented fish sauces.
AU: Crisan-EV; Sands-A
PY: 1975
SO: Applied-Microbiology; 29 (1) 106-108, 13 ref.
AB: 39 microorganisms representing 11 spp. of bacteria [mainly Bacillus spp.], 1 yeast, and 3 filamentous fungi were isolated and identified from 4 fermented fish sauces: nampla, patis, koami, and ounago.

Record 138 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 75-04-G0232
TI: Food science in developing countries: a selection of unsolved problems.
CA: United States of America, National Academy of Sciences; United States of America, National Research Council
PY: 1974
SO: 79pp., many ref.
DT: Book
AB: [Continued from preceding abstr.] Food processing (High cost of packaging thermally processed food (pp. 21-23, 5 ref.); Indigenous sources of enzymes for more rapid fermentation of fish (pp. 23-25, 4 ref.); Cooking quality of stored beans (pp. 25-26, 5 ref.); Storage for food products of plant origin (pp. 27-28, 4 ref.); Processing fermented fish products (pp. 28-29, 4 ref.); Separating coconut oil and protein by fermentation (pp. 30-31, 2 ref.); Keeping qualities of buffalo milk and its processed products (pp. 32-33, 2 ref.); Salt for preservation purposes (pp. 33-34, 2 ref.); Milling quinua seeds (pp. 34-36, 8 ref.); Ageing of starchy products (pp. 36-39, 13 ref.); Increased use of red palm oil (pp. 39-40, 6 ref.]; Food composition (Factors governing texture and softness of fermented foods in India (pp. 41-42, 2 ref.); Evaluating useful properties of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids of cereals and legumes (pp. 42-43, 4 ref.); Fat composition of fried foods in India (pp. 44-45, 3 ref); Trace elements in animal feeds (pp. 45-57, 15 ref.); Biochemical factors limiting the use of legume grains (pp. 47-48, 3 ref.); [Continued in following abstr.]

Record 139 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 75-03-R0147
TI: [Fermented sea foods.]
AU: Witas-T
PY: 1974
SO: Przemysl-Spozywczy; 28 (2) 59-62, 17 ref.
AB: This review deals with European fermented fish products; fermented fish and other sea-food products of south-eastern Asia; methods of fish fermentation; microbiological and enzyme aspects of fish fermentation; nutritive value of fermented fish; and possibility of developing manufacture of fermented fish products in Europe.

Record 140 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 75-02-R0086
TI: [Fermented fish products and botulism.]
AU: Hauge-S
PY: 1974
SO: Norsk-Veterinaertidsskrift; 86 (7/8) 350-353, 31 ref.
DT: Review
AB: After a brief description of various fermented fish products (the Norwegion 'rakefisk' and 'boknafisk' and the Japanese 'izushi', 'biribosni' and 'kombaki') with special reference to their implication in outbreaks of botutism, the manufacture of rakefisk is discussed on the basis of literature data. Aspects considered include quantities of salt required, maturation and storage temp., and the relative importance of microbial and autolytic fermentation. It is suggested that maturation and storage at temp. less than2 degree C is desirable, to prevent growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum.

Record 141 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 73-10-R0477
TI: A new product from Stavrida.
AU: Heikal-HA; El-Dashlouty-MS
PY: 1972
SO: Agricultural-Research-Review; 50 (4) 229-233, 5 ref.
AB: A study was made of the production of a new salted, fermented fish product, similar to 'Fesikh' in taste and flavour, but using the cheap fish Stavrida rather than the usual Bori. The fish are left for 24 h in the shade and as soon as the fish body is swollen dry salting is carried out, the product is then left to ferment for 6-9 days. It was concluded that Fesikh prepared using Stavrida was similar to the traditional Fesikh in texture and flavour, and was cheaper to produce and gave a higher yield than when using Bori. The slighly lower water holding capacity of Fesikh prepared from Stavrida resulted in it having a slightly longer storage life than the traditional product.

Record 142 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 73-02-R0111
TI: The nutritive value of Thai fish products. I. The vitamin content.
AU: Sorasuchart-T
PY: 1971
SO: Fiskeridirektoratets-Skrifter-Serie-Teknologiske-Undersokelser; 5 (7) 11pp., 18 ref.
AB: The contents of B-vitamins in 19 samples of Thai fish products bought at the market in Bangkok were determined microbiologically. The contents (mu/g) of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and biotin were respectively: dried snake-head 2.4, 2.03, 51.4, 0.036, -, 16.5, 0.021; dried squid 0.4, 0.90, 65.7, 0.084, 0.66, 9.5, 0.115; boiled dried shrimp 0.9, 0.97, 33.7, 0.05, 0.3, 6.16, 0.093; boiled dried mussel 0.3, 6.88, 19.6, 0.37, 2.5, 7.54, 0.26; salted dried pla tu -, 1.73, 74.2, 0.06, 0.57, 3.71, 0.053; salted dried mackerel 0.4, 1.92, 101.0, 0.032, 1.56, 4.41, 0.040; salted dried threadfin 0.9, 2.57, 53.6, 0.067, 1.06, 5.88, 0.040; salted dried pla slid 0.6, 6.63, 27.7, 0.027, 0.61, 18.6, 0.125; salted dried leatherskin 0.5, 1.50, 46.4, 0.04, 0.87, 4.17, 0.051; salted dried carp 0.1, 1.57, 38.6, 0.096, 1.02, 20.4, 0.082; salted dried ray, 1.6, 1.39, 89.3, 0.053, 1.89, 10.2, 0.059; salted dried anchovy 0.1, 1.10, 23.1, 0.11, 0.6, 10.2, 0.145; salted dried mullet 0.1, 3.45, 38.5, 0.10, 0.56, 10.6, 0.068; smoked catfish 0.1, 1.92, 65.5, 0.15, 0.59, 17.7, 0.102; smoked featherback 0.3, 1.72, 34.3, 0.029, 1.49, 25.3, 0.056; seasoned dried catfish 3.6, 1.52, 96.4, 0.027, 1.35, 8.60, 0.033; fermented pla ra -, 0.99, 6.4, 0.023, 0.4, 2.25, 0.016; fermented nam pla, traces, 0.67, 43.9, 0.015, 0.95, 3.30, 0.039; fermented kapi 0.1, 1.73, 24.7, 0.052, 0.5, 10.1, 0.105.

Record 143 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 71-12-R0536
TI: [Growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum type E in 'rakefisk' at various temperatures.]
AU: Tjaberg-TB; Ystgaard-OM; Skulberg-A
PY: 1969
SO: Medlemsblad-for-den-Norske-Veterinaerforening; 21 (9) 479-481, 4 ref.
AB: Rakefisk is a fermented fish product, which is made by salting fish, generally trout or salmonoid-type, and allowing it to ferment naturally. This type of product, which is eaten without heating, had given rise to a number of cases of botulism in Norway. In experiments carried out to determine the effect of fermentation temp. on Cl. botulinum type E (Fredriksberk), trout in a brine containing 6% NaCl were infected with 1 x 10-6 spores/g and fermented at temp. between -2 degree and +25 degree C. No toxin was produced at less than4 degree C, which is therefore recommended as the fermentation temp. for production of rakefisk.

Record 144 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 71-10-R0415
TI: Fish protein.
AU: Borgstroem-G
PY: 1970
SO: Wenner-Gren-Center-International-Symposium-Series; 14: 55-76, Numerous ref.

Record 145 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 70-03-R0090
TI: Notes on fish and shellfish.
AU: Hardy-E
PY: 1969
SO: Canning-and-Packing; 39 (466) 5
AB: Production of salted fish, fermented squid, fish sausage and various other fish products in Japan is briefly considered.

Record 146 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 69-07-G0282
TI: Lactic acid bacterial fermentation of burong dalag.
AU: Orillo-CA; Pederson-CS
PY: 1968
SO: Applied-Microbiology; 16 (11) 1669-71, 3 ref.
AB: Two preparations of burong dalag, a fermented fish and rice food of the Filipinos, were examined microbiologically and chemically. The lactic acid fermentation was accomplished by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus plantarum, although strains of Streptococcus faecalis and micrococci were also present in the first few days. The pH was lowered to less than 4.0, and approximate equal to0-9% lactic acid was attained in 1 wk. Careful sealing of the surface of the fermentation mixture (79.5% moisture), was necessary to prevent growth of moulds and yeasts.

Record 147 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
AN: 69-05-B0226
TI: Preventing Clostridium botulinum type E /poisoning ; fat rancidity/ by silage fermentation.
AU: Wirahadikusumah-S
PY: 1968
SO: Lantbrukshoegskolans-Annaler; 34 (6) 551-689, Numerous ref.
AB: The following investigations were made in studying development of Clostridium botulinum type E (i) in fish silage: production of pure spores in trypticase-peptone-glucose medium; effect of fish silage on enumeration methods and assay of (i) toxin; enumeration of (i) and toxin analysis in freshly made and fermented fish silage inoculated with (i). Sporulation of (i) was 40-60%. Counts of (i) were slightly affected by inclusion of fish silage in suphite-polymyxin-sulphadiazene agar. Inocula of (i) were destroyed during fermentation if added at the ensiling stage, while (i) added to fermented silage remained viable after 40 days' incubation. Silage was toxic when inoculated with greater than 10-6 pure spores/g of silage. Lactobacillus brevis and Streptococcus faecalis were amongst the organisms interacting with (i) in fish silage. Determinations were made of degree and development of fat rancidity in moist and air-dried silage. Fat rancidity did not occur in moist silage, but drying in air at 50 degree C produced a rancid smell.
Tue Oct 8 08:35:01 2002
Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
Database: ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts
Query: (fermented fish)