147 Scientifc reports of fermented food
Record 1 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Purification and characterisation of an extracellular fructan beta-fructosidase
from a Lactobacillus pentosus strain isolated from fermented fish.
AU: Paludan-Muller-C; Gram-L; Rattray-FP
SO: Systematic-and-Applied-Microbiology; 25 (1) 13-20, 31 ref.
AB: An extracellular fructan beta-fructosidase (exo-inulinase; EC 184.108.40.206)
produced by Lactobacillus pentosus B235 (isolated as part of the dominant
microflora from a garlic containing fermented fish product) was purified
and characterized. L. pentosus B235 was grown in a chemically-defined
medium with inulin as the sole carbohydrate source. The extracellular
fructan beta-fructosidase produced was purified to homogeneity from the
bacterial culture supernatant by ultrafiltration, anion exchange chromatography
and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The mol. wt. of the enzyme
was estimated to be approx. 126 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The
purified enzyme had highest activity for levan (a beta(2Right arrow6)-linked
fructan), but also hydrolysed garlic extract (a beta(2Right arrow1)-linked
fructan with beta(2Right arrow6)-linked fructosyl side chains), 1,1,1-kestose,
1,1-kestose, 1-kestose, inulin (beta(2Right arrow1)-linked fructans) and
sucrose at 60, 45, 39, 12, 9 and 3%, respectively, of the activity observed
for levan. Melezitose, raffinose and stachyose were not hydrolysed by
the enzyme. The fructan beta-fructosidase was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate,
EDTA, Fe-2-+, Zn-2-+ and Co-2-+, whereas Mn-2-+ had no effect; effects
of Cu ions are also reported. The first 20 N-terminal amino acids was
sequenced. The enzyme had temp. and pH optima at 25 degree C and 5.5,
respectively. Concn. of up to 12% NaCl, had effect on enzyme activity.
Record 2 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Chemical composition and microbiological changes during spontaneous
and starter culture fermentation of enam ne-setaakye, a west African fermented
AU: Asiedu-M; Sanni-AI
SO: European-Food-Research-and-Technology; 215 (1) 8-12, 24 ref.
AB: Enan ne-setaakye, a fermented fish-carbohydrate dish, was made from
minced fish flesh (75%), yam (20.5%), onions (1%), ginger (1%) and salt
(2.5%). The ingredients were mixed, and the mixture was divided into 2
portions which were rolled into 2-cm diam. balls. The balls were allowed
to ferment naturally for 120 h at ambient temp. (30 plus/minus 1 degree
C) or inoculated with starter and fermented for 72 h at 30 degree C. At
the end of fermentation, 113 isolates belonging to the genera Lactobacillus,
Pediococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Debaromyces
and Candida were obtained from the naturally fermented product. L. brevis
and P. pentosaceus were the dominant species, with 24 and 19% occurrence
respectively, while Candida species occurred least (3%). Changes in viable
count of the microflora showed predominance of lactic acid bacteria from
48 h of fermentation (5.8 x 10-8 cfu/g) to the end (2.3 x 10-1-0 cfu/g).
Enterobacteriaceae, detected at 10-3 cfu/g at 0 h, were not detectable
after 72 h. Fungi were not isolated, while yeasts became detectable from
72 h, reaching 10-3 cfu/g at the end of fermentation. With a shorter fermentation
period of 72 h with a lactic acid bacteria count of 10-1-0 cfu/g, no detectable
Enterobacteriaceae or fungi and a yeast population of 10-3 cfu/g were
obtained when fermentation was carried out using L. brevis and P. pentosaceus
as starter cultures. A pH level of 4.3, 3.1% titratable acidity and 2.1
salt content were obtained in starter culture-fermented product. There
were significant differences in moisture and free fatty acid contents
of naturally and starter culture-fermented samples, but protein content
(16%) was not significantly different. Sensory evaluation showed consumer
preference for samples which had been steamed for 15 min.
Record 3 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of fermented fish
products from Sardinella sp. in Nigeria.
AU: Achinewhu-SC; Oboh-CA
SO: Journal-of-Aquatic-Food-Product-Technology; 11 (2) 53-59, 14 ref.
AB: Composition and sensory properties of fermented sardinella (Sardinella
sp.) were investigated with a view to using it as a flavouring for soups
and stews and as a protein source in infant foods. Fresh sardinella were
subjected to `chance inoculation' (natural) fermentation with or without
treatment with spices at room temp. (30 plus/minus 2 degree C). Fermented
products were analysed for chemical and microbiological composition and
sensory properties. For unfermented and fermented products, moisture content
was 73 and 70%, fat content was 7 and 8% and crude protein content was
16 and 18%, respectively. Fermentation caused a slight decrease in trimethylamine
from 20 to 18 kg/100 g in unfermented and fermented products. Peroxide
value was 6 mEq/kg for fermented products and 8 mEq/kg for unfermented
products. A consistent decrease in pH from 6.5 to 4.3 and a corresponding
increase in titratable acidity from 0.69 to 1.84 NaOH/100 kg was observed
during fermentation. Fermentation caused a slight decrease in total viable
count of microorganisms, which ranged from 250 to 380 cfu/g for fermented
and unfermented products. Sensory evaluation showed that fish fermented
in 10% salt solution had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher scores
for flavour and overall acceptability than those for products fermented
in a 15% salt solution.
Record 4 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Characteristics of fish sauce made from Pacific whiting and surimi
by-products during fermentation stage.
AU: Lopetcharat-K; Park-JW
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 67 (2) 511-516, 31 ref.
AB: Potential for making high quality fish sauce from Pacific whiting
and its by-products was studied. Fermentation conditions and physicochemical
transformations during fermentation were also investigated. The fermentation
conditions for producing Pacific whiting fish sauce were static atmospheric
fermentation with 25% salt at 50 degree C. The enzymes effective in fermentation
were heat stable and salt tolerant. Fermentation at 50 degree C gave higher
yields than at 35 degree C. Total nitrogen content of whole fish fermented
at 50 degree C reached levels equivalent to those of commercial fish sauce
before 15 days, supporting the strong degradation effects of Pacific whiting
enzymes at earlier stages. Levels of soluble solids and relative gravity
also reached those of the commercial sample at 60 days. However, colour
value of unripened fish sauce was far from that of commercial fish sauce,
indicating that ripening may be necessary to develop proper colour. Staphylococcus,
Bacillus and Micrococcus were the predominant microorganisms during fermentation.
Record 5 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Application of multi-enzymic method in fermented fish sauce production
from Harengula zunasi's offal.
AU: Deng-Shanggui; Peng-Zhiyang; Yang-Ping; Xia-Xingzhou
SO: Food-&-Fermentation-Industries; 28 (2) 32-36, 8 ref.
AB: Fermented fish sauce was produced from the offal of Harengula zunasi,
using an enzymic method. The offal was treated with alkaline and neutral
proteinase, followed by flavorase. Optimal conditions included pH 7.0,
50 degree C, treatment with1.5% alkaline proteinase and 1.5% neutral proteinase
for 60 min, and treatment with 2.0% flavorase for 60 min. The fermented
fish sauce produced by this method has a total amino acid content of 40.3%.
Its content of amino acids making a positive contribution to flavour (including
Glu, Asp, Gly, Ala, Pro and Ser) is 49%. The sauce also contains 19 and
11 mg/g total and amino N, respectively.
Record 6 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11AN: 2002-05-R0353
TI: Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product
prepared with different salt concentrations.
AU: Paludan-Muller-C; Madsen-M; Sophanodora-P; Gram-L; Moller-PL
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 73 (1) 61-70, 33 ref.
AB: Effects during fermentation of plaa-som (a Thai fermented fish product
prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup, and sometimes toasted
rice) of NaCl concn. (6, 7, 9 and 11%) on pH decrease and microflora composition
were investigated. Also, phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations
and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used in the identification of the lactic
acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast present during plaa-som fermentation. Results
showed that a rapid pH decrease occurred in low-NaCl (6 and 7%) batches
of plaa-som (from pH 6 to 4.5), whereas a slow or no decrease in pH occurred
in high-NaCl (9 and 11%) batches. All batches, apart from the 11% NaCl
batch where microbial counts were 1-2 log lower, experienced increases
in counts of LAB (10-8-10-9 cfu/g) and yeasts (10-7-5 x 10-7 cfu/g). LAB
isolates were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus alimentarius/farciminis,
Weisella confusa, Lb. plantarum and Lactocococcus garviae (only isolated
from high-NaCl batches), while 95% of the yeasts were identified as Zygosaccharomyces
rouxii. A NaCl level of 9% was observed to delay plaa-som fermentation
due to inhibition of LAB growth. It is proposed that Z. rouxii may contribute
positively to the flavour development of plaa-som, although its growth
had no influence on fermentation rate.
Record 7 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic
acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product.
AU: Paludan-Muller-C; Valyasevi-R; Huss-HH; Gram-L
SO: Journal-of-Applied-Microbiology; 92 (2) 307-314, 31 ref.
AB: Importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product (som-fak)
was established, and differentiation was made between garlic-/inulin-fermenting
lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at the strain level. Som-fak was prepared by
fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. The
pH decreased to 4.5 after 2 days of fermentation; however, when garlic
was omitted from the mixture, acidification was lacking. LAB predominated,
and approx. one third of 234 isolated strains fermented garlic and inulin
(the carbohydrate reserve in garlic). These strains were identified as
Lactobacillus pentosus and L. plantarum. RAPD analysis revealed one major
RAPD type (29 strains) isolated from all stages of fermentation. It is
concluded that garlic is essential for acidification of som-fak, and that
garlic-fermenting strains constitute a significant, homogeneous part of
the LAB flora.
Record 8 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: An overview of recent research on MSG: sensory applications and safety.
SO: Food-Australia; 53 (12) 546-549, 57 ref.
AB: Flavour properties, safety and physiological effects of monosodium
glutamate (MSG) are reviewed. Aspects considered include: the relationship
between glutamate contents of foods and umami flavour; occurrence of free
glutamate in natural foods (meat, poultry, sea foods, vegetables, cheese,
milk); glutamate levels in traditional processed foods (Marmite and other
conc. extracts, soy sauce, fermented fish products, fish sauce); changes
in glutamate concn. during ripening of fruits and cheese and maturation
of ham; contribution of glutamate to the flavour profiles of foods; safety
evaluation of MSG (Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, effects on brain function);
and the role of MSG in the promotion of healthy eating.
Record 9 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Use of exogenous enzymes to elaborate the Roman fish sauce garum.
AU: Aquerreta-Y; Astiasaran-I; Bello-J
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 82 (1) 107-112, 48
AB: Underutilized by-products of the fishing industry were used in the
preparation of a fermented fish sauce with nutritional and sensory properties
similar to garum, a fish sauce consumed in ancient Rome. The raw materials
were frozen tuna (Tunnus thynnus) liver and eviscerated mackerel (Scomber
scombrus). Of the commercial enzyme preparations tested (Fungal Proteinase
P31000, Alcalase 2.4L, Kojizyme MG, Trypsin PTN 3.0 and Neutrase 0.5L)
Neutrase gave the greatest yield (ml liquid/100 g initial mixture) and
was used in all further experiments. Fermentation was carried out at 35-37
degree C, in the presence of 10% salt, 1 g/100 g oregano, coriander and
thyme, and 0.001 g/100 g BHA and BHT, for 48 h, followed by filtration
and dilution with a guar gum solution. The resulting sauce contained 21
mg/g N, 10% fat and 5.9% salt. Analysis of its fatty acid profile revealed
high levels of oleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, at 15.1,
4.2 and 11.3 g/100 g fat, respectively, resulting in a high PUFA/saturated
fatty acid ratio (0.98) and a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio. In comparison,
traditional Korean fermented fish sauce (a type of nuoc mam) was found
to contain 0.06% fat and 16.8% salt, although its N content was similar
to that of garum.
Record 10 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Characterization of the triterpenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene and its
isomers in food-associated bacteria.
AU: Breithaupt-DE; Schwack-W; Wolf-G; Hammes-WP
SO: European-Food-Research-and-Technology; 213 (3) 231-233, 13 ref.
AB: Occurrence of stereoisomers of the parent all-trans-configured triterpenoid
4,4'-diaponeurosporene in Gram positive bacteria which have importance
in food fermentation processes was investigated. 3 strains of Staphylococcus
carnosus obtained from fermented fish and Italian salami, Lactobacillus
plantarum LTH 4936 from bakers yeast, Enterococcus sulfureus DSM 6905-T
from vegetables and E. mundtii DSM 4838-T from soil produced the predominant
all trans-isomer and also 7 cis-isomers of 4,4'-diaponeurosporene. Results
revealed triterpenoid carotenoids in staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria,
which differ from those formed in S. aureus. Possible activities of 4,4'-diaponeurosporene
in bacteria are discussed.
Record 11 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Microflora of fish nukazuke made in Ishikawa, Japan.
AU: Kuda-T; Miyamoto-H; Sakajiri-M; Ando-K; Yano-T
SO: Nippon-Suisan-Gakkaishi; 67 (2) 296-301, 13 ref.
AB: 34 fermented fish in bran paste (nukazuke, salinity; 10-15%) products
made by 13 factories in Japan were analysed for microbial composition.
The predominant bacterial group was halophilic lactococci, however samples
obtained from different factories or different fish (including sardine,
Pacific herring, mackerel, puffer fish and yellowtail) showed wide variation
in numbers of these bacteria ( less than 10-2-10-7 cfu/g). The numbers
of halophilic or osmophilic yeasts ranged from less than 10-2 to 10-6
cfu/g. In 3 samples, aerobic cocci and yeasts were dominant rather than
lactococci. The main organic acid determined in products was lactic acid;
the lactic acid concn. also differed (0.1-1.7 g/100 g) between products
from different factories and fish. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in nukazuke
products ranged from 50 to 230 mg/100 g.
Record 12 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Changes in proximate composition and extractive components of rice-bran-fermented
mackerel heshiko during processing.
AU: Itou-K; Akahane-Y
SO: Nippon-Suisan-Gakkaishi; 66 (6) 1051-1058, 21 ref.
AB: Compositional changes occurring during processing of heshiko (a fermented
fish product made from mackerel) were studied. Heshiko was produced from
fresh mackerel by salting for one wk and subsequent pickling in rice-bran
mixture for 7 months. During the salting period, fish were strongly dehydrated
and decreased in body wt. by up to 12% due to salt penetration. During
this period, lipid was mostly retained in the fish, although a small amount
of protein was eluted. During fermentation in rice-bran mixture, sugars
permeated from rice-bran into the fish and ash and lipid levels in the
fish slightly decreased; protein levels did not vary during fermentation.
Throughout salting and fermentation, most free amino acids and peptides
increased markedly; however His levels showed a sharp decrease. The increase
in levels of Glu, Asp, Gly, Ala, Val, Ile, Leu, and low mol. peptides
suggested that these components might contribute to the characteristic
flavour of heshiko. Nucleotides, such as IMP decreased to trace amounts
at the early stage of fermentation. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic,
succinic, and malic acids increased markedly during fermentation, while
pH of fish flesh decreased from 6.6 to 5.2.
Record 13 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Quality characteristics of Southeast Asian salt-fermented fish sauces.
AU: Young-Je-Cho; Yeong-Sun-Im; Hee-Yeol-Park; Yeung-Joon-Choi
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Fisheries-Society; 33 (2) 98-102, 14 ref.
AB: Composition of 13 types of Southeast Asian salt-fermented fish sauce
(patis, nuocmam and nampla of various types) was evaluated. Fish used
included mackerel, silver pomfret and anchovy. Moisture averaged 60.6-72.8%,
ash 18.2-25.8%, crude protein 0.9-13.7% and volatile basic N compounds
14.1-338.6 mg/100 ml. pH values were 4.66-5.91 and salinity 24.1-30.6%;
values are also shown for total N, amino N, total free amino acids and
total ATP-related compounds. Sauces proved rich in free amino acids such
as glutamic acid, lysine, leucine, alanine, aspartic acid, valine and
Record 14 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Partial characterization of lacticin NK24, a newly identified bacteriocin
of Lactococcus lactis NK24 isolated from Jeot-gal.
AU: Lee-NK; Paik-HD
SO: Food-Microbiology; 18 (1) 17-24, 23 ref.
AB: The bacteriocin lacticin NK24 produced by Lactococcus lactis NK24,
isolated from jeot-gal (a high-salt fermented fish product), was identified,
partially purified, and partially characterized. Results showed that lacticin
NK24 had a relatively broad spectrum of activity against most lactic acid
bacteria and several pathogens (including some Gram negative microorganisms).
However, lacticin NK24 had no inhibitory activity against a yeast and
fungi tested. Treatment with proteinase IX or proteinase XIV led to a
complete loss of bacteriocin activity, but no modification of activity
was observed when lacticin NK24 was treated with the other enzymes tested
(trypsin, proteinase XIII, alpha-chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, proteinase
K, alpha-amylase and lipase). Lacticin NK24 proved to be relatively heat
stable; inhibitory activity was detected during 30 min heat treatment
at 100 degree C. Lacticin NK24 was stable at pH 2.0-9.0, and was unaffected
by a range of organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone, toluene, isopropanol
and chloroform). The bacteriocin demonstrated a bactericidal mode of action
against Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCCM 11324. SDS-PAGE determined that
lacticin NK24 had an apparent molecular mass of approx. 3-3.5 kDa. It
is concluded that the characteristics of lacticin NK24 make it a potential
candidate for use as an antibacterial agent in foods for the control of
spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.
Record 15 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Changes of components in salt-fermented northern sand lance, Ammodytes
personatus sauce during fermentation.
AU: Young-Je-Cho; Yeong-Sun-Im; Keun-Woo-Lee; Geon-Bae-Kim; Yeung-Joon-Choi
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Fisheries-Society; 32 (6) 693-698, 18 ref.
AB: Changes in composition of salt-fermented fish sauce from northern
sand lance (Ammodytes personatus) during fermentation were investigated.
Compositional parameters were examined at 1-3 month intervals during 18
months fermentation. Moisture content decreased slightly, but the content
of VBN and crude protein, total N, amino N, degree of hydrolysis, and
absorbance at 453 nm increased gradually during fermentation; ash content,
pH, and salinity showed almost no change. The contents of total N, amino
N, and degree of hydrolysis increased sharply until 6-8 months fermentation
and then showed a gentle increment. Hypoxanthine and uric acid were the
most abundant ATP related compounds, ranging from 83.1% to 92.9%. After
18 months of fermentation, sauces contained high levels of free amino
acids such as glutamic acid, alanine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, valine
and aspartic acid.
Record 16 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Quality investigation of commercial northern sand lance, Ammodytes
AU: Young-Je-Cho; Yeong-Sun-Im; Keun-Woo-Lee; Geon-Bae-Kim; Yeung-Joon-Choi
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Fisheries-Society; 32 (5) 612-617, 16 ref.
AB: Fifteen different commercial salt-fermented fish sauces (CNS) prepared
from northern sand lance (Ammodytes personatus) were evaluated for composition
and compared with a traditional-style fish sauce (TNS) prepared from the
same fish species. CNS sauces contained 66.5-71.0% moisture, 19.3-24.6%
ash, 4.7-12.0% crude protein, and the pH and salinity were 5.56-6.47,
24.0-32.9%, respectively. Total N, amino N, total free amino acids and
total ATP related compounds were in the ranges 0.781-1.918 g/100 ml, 445.9-1037.9
mg/100 ml, 3258-6562 mg/100 ml and 4.766-8.989 mumol/1 ml, respectively.
CNS had higher moisture content, TMAO, TMA and pH, but lower content of
crude protein, salinity, total N, amino N, total ATP related compounds,
absorbance at 453 nm and total free amino acid than TNS. Both CNS and
TNS samples were rich in free amino acids, such as glutamic acid, lysine,
alanine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid and isoleucine (descending order).
Record 17 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Implementation of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system
to the fish/seafood industry: a review.
AU: Tzouros-NE; Arvanitoyannis-IS
SO: Food-Reviews-International; 16 (3) 273-325, many ref.
AB: Implementation of HACCP in the sea food industry is reviewed. Aspects
covered include: principles of HACCP; problems and difficulties associated
with application of HACCP; development of appropriate HACCP strategies;
characterization of critical control points; recording systems for HACCP;
benefits experienced by companies in the fish industry following HACCP
implementation; microbiological quality problems encountered in production
of sea foods; microbial pathogens occuring in sea foods; methods for monitoring
safety and quality of fish; examples of HACCP application to the production
of fresh fish, packaged fish products, smoked and cured sea foods, canned
sea foods, fish sticks, shellfish, sea food soup, surimi, fish oils and
fermented fish products; use of hygiene procedures in sea food processing;
Record 18 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11AN: 2000-10-R0778
TI: The inhibitory action of spices against pathogens that might be capable
of growth in a fish sauce (mehiawah) from the Middle East.
AU: Al-Jedah-JH; Ali-MZ; Robinson-RK
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 57 (1/2) 129-133, 12 ref.
AB: Inhibitory effects of ingredients (cumin, coriander, mustard, wheat,
fennel seeds, black pepper and dried lemon) added during processing of
mehiawah (fermented fish sauce) on pathogens (Vibrio parahaemolyticus,
Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) that may
be potential contaminants of the fish or process plant were investigated.
Samples of mehiawah were inoculated with pathogens at a level of 1.0 x
10-4 cfu/ml and stored at 25 degree C; pathogens were enumerated after
3, 7, 14 and 28 days of storage. Results showed that neither fennel nor
coriander affected survival of any of the pathogens. Individually, lemon
had the most inhibitory impact on E. coli making the organism undetectable
after 3 days, while in the presence of all ingredients E. coli was not
detectable after 7 days. Counts of S. aureus fell rapidly in all samples;
after 7 days S. aureus could only be detected in mehiawah with no added
ingredients. S. typhi survived for 28 days in mehiawah with no added ingredients
and in the presence of black pepper alone, but was eliminated within 3
days in samples with only lemon, mustard or cumin added, and within 14
days in samples with only wheat added. Mehiawah containing all ingredients
was free from S. typhi after 7 days. V. parahaemolyticus was eliminated
from samples after 7 days with individual additions of wheat, lemon or
mustard, however samples containing all the ingredients tested positive
for up to 21 days. Based on these results, it is concluded that mehiawah
poses minimal health risks to consumers due to the elimination of pathogens
by the ingredients in a matter of days.
Record 19 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Biogenic amine formation and degradation by potential fish silage
AU: Enes-Dapkevicius-MLN; Nout-MJR; Rombouts-FM; Houben-JH; Wymenga-W
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 57 (1/2) 107-114, 18 ref.
AB: Fish silage, produced by fermentation of fish paste by lactic acid
bacteria (LAB), contains a considerable amount of free amino acids that
can act as precursors for formation of toxic biogenic amines. Several
bacteria, including some LAB, have the capacity to degrade these biogenic
amines through the production of diamine oxidases (DAO; amine oxidases).
In this study, attempts were made to identify suitable LAB starter cultures
for production of safe fish silage. LAB isolates were screened for production
of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine), effect
of different conditions (pH 4.5 and 7.0, 15-37 degree C, and addition
of 12% sucrose, 2% NaCl and 0.05% cysteine) on degradation of histamine
in fish silage by DAO was assessed, and LAB isolates were tested for DAO
activity in MRS broth (containing 0.005 g/l histamine) and ensiled fish
slurry. Results showed that of 77 LAB cultures isolated from naturally
fermented fish pastes, 17% were capable of producing greater than or equal1
biogenic amines. Histamine degradation by DAO occurred at all temp., but
not at pH 4.5, and was unaffected by addition of 12% sucrose or 2% NaCl;
however, 0.05% cysteine caused a decrease. 5 out of a further 48 LAB cultures
isolated from naturally fermented fish pastes were capable of degrading
histamine in broth within 30 h by 20-56%. 2 of these isolates were also
capable of 50-54% histamine degradation in ensiled fish slurry. It is
concluded that the use of these 2 isolates in fish silage preparation
could potentially reduce the risks posed by histamine.
Record 20 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Biogenic amines in cold-smoked fish fermented with lactic acid bacteria.
AU: Petaja-E; Eerola-S; Petaja-P
SO: European-Food-Research-and-Technology; 210 (4) 280-285, 15 ref.
AB: Previous studies have shown that fermentation of cold-smoked fish
with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be applied to produce storable, microbiologically
safe fish products. In this study, possible formation of biogenic amines
during the fish fermentation process was investigated; sensory quality,
pH, titrated acid content, wt. loss, aw value, redox potential and microbiological
counts during 0-7 days fermentation were also evaluated. 3 groups of fish
(rainbow trout) with 3 different LAB inocula and a group without any inoculum
were made. Fermentation of the products made with LAB was successful.
Products had acceptable sensory properties while inoculated LAB grew to
greater than 8 log cfu/g; pH of the products was reduced from 6.4 to 5.0-5.3
and aw was reduced from 0.980 to 0.927. Counts of Pseudomonads, which
were the predominant bacteria of fish raw material, were completely suppressed.
Fish raw material and fermented products contained low amounts of biogenic
amines with one exception: cadaverine, histamine and tyramine increased
in all product groups in one experimental series (II) out of 3. The highest
concn. of these amines were in the control products without any LAB inoculation
since the LAB used and the contaminants isolated from fermented products
were unable to produce cadaverine, histamine or tyramine, it is suggested
that appearance of biogenic amines in experimental series II may have
been caused by non-isolated contaminants of fish raw material.
Record 21 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Chemical and microbiological properties of mehiawah - a popular fish
sauce in the Gulf.
AU: Al-Jedah-JH; Ali-MZ; Robinson-RK
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 36 (6) 561-564, 10
AB: Poor handling of raw fish at ambient temp. can easily lead to contamination
with pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia
coli; concern has been expressed that mehiawah, a spiced, fermented fish
sauce popular in the Gulf States (Middle East), could pose a health hazard
to consumers. An extensive examination of home-made and commercial samples
of mehiawah revealed that samples were free from vegetative pathogens
even after storage for several months at 20-25 degree C; Bacillus cereus
was identified in one sample. The inhibitory nature of the product was
confirmed, when fresh mehiawah was inoculated with Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus
aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and E. coli. Only V. parahaemolyticus
survived beyond 14 days and even this species could not be detected at
21 days. It is concluded that, during routine manufacture, the initial
processing of the fish eliminated any serious contamination, while the
combined effects of salt, acidity, spices and, perhaps fatty acids from
the fish oil, arrested the growth of any pathogens that might enter the
product during bottling.
Record 22 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Quality characteristics of myung-tae (Alaska pollack) sikhae during
AU: Sang-Moo-Kim; Hee-Yun-Kim; Sung-Hee-Choi
SO: Food-Science-and-Biotechnology; 9 (1) 5-9, 18 ref.
AB: Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory changes occurring in
sikhae (traditional Korean fermented fish with cereals) produced from
Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) fermented at different temp. and
times were analysed to determine optimum conditions for value-added commercial
production. Alaska pollack, cooked cereals, pepper powder, sliced radish,
garlic, ginger and malt were mixed, packaged and fermented at 5, 15 and
25 degree C for up to 28 days. Samples were analysed for pH, total viable
cell count, contents of lactic acid, amino nitrogen (NH2-N) and volatile
basic N (VBN), TBA number and sensory qualities. Acidity decreased as
fermentation progressed at all temp., while contents of lactic acid, NH2-N,
and VBN increased. TBA number increased during fermentation at 5 degree
C over all fermentation periods, while at 15 and 25 degree C, TBA numbers
increased up to day 14 and then decreased. Numbers of total viable cells
increased up to days 21 and 14 at 15 and 25 degree C, respectively and
then decreased, while at 5 degree C numbers increased continuously over
all fermentation periods. It is concluded that Alaska pollack sikhae fermented
at 15 degree C for 21 days showed the most desirable sensory properties
and acceptable aftertaste with low odour; however reductions in salt concn.
and further hydrolysis of fish may be required to reduce its moderately
high saltiness and chewiness.
Record 23 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Occurrence of D-amino acids in fish sauces and other fermented fish
AU: Abe-H; Jung-Nim-Park; Fukumoto-Y; Fujita-E; Tanaka-T; Washio-T; Otsuka-S;
SO: Fisheries-Science; 65 (4) 637-641, 20 ref.
AB: Free D-amino acids were determined in 60 fermented fish sauces collected
from various outlets in Southeast and East Asia. Of the major D-amino
acids, D-alanine, D-aspartate and D-glutamate, D-alanine was the most
abundant and found in almost all fish sauces. Fish sauces from Myanmar
contained significantly higher amounts of these D-amino acids than those
from the other 6 countries investigated (Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, China,
South Korea and Japan). In fish sauces differing in fermentation periods,
D-alanine and D-aspartate were highest in fish sauces fermented 22 months.
Experiments were also conducted to investigate formation of D-amino acids
in fish sauces prepared in the laboratory from sardine (Sardinops melanostictus)
and squid (Todarodes pacificus) to which 10 or 20% NaCl was added; salted
homogenates were incubated at 30 degree C for 1 yr (20% salted samples)
or 6 months (10% salted samples) and analysed weekly for microbial counts
and monthly for D-amino acids. In 20%-salted sauces prepared from sardine
and squid, D-alanine increased slightly only in squid-based samples. In
10%-salted preparations, highest D-alanine increase and microbial counts
were observed in squid-based samples. This increase was largely suppressed
in sardine preparations. All other fermented fish products analysed also
contained D-alanine in widely varying amounts and a small amount of D-aspartate.
Data indicated that D-alanine could potentially be used as a molecular
marker of bacterial activity in fermented fish products of low salt concn.
Record 24 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Trans fatty acid content of processed foods in Korean diet.
AU: Kyung-Hee-Noh; Kyo-Yon-Lee; Jung-Won-Moon; Mi-Ock-Lee; Young-Sun-Song
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 28 (6)
1191-1200, 46 ref.
AB: Total lipid and trans fatty acid (tFA) contents of 157 food items
commonly consumed in Korea were assessed and a database was prepared in
order to estimate Korean tFA intake. Total lipid and tFA contents were
determined by the Bligh and Dyer method and attenuated total reflection
IR spectroscopy, respectively. tFA content of margarines ranged from 0.8
to 25.2%, depending on manufacturers. Cakes contained higher levels of
tFA (0.8-16.9%) than hamburgers (0.8-8.4%) and doughnuts (4.9-10%). tFA
were widely distributed in crackers and cookies (0.8-25%); meat and fish
products contained 0-8.9% tFA. Fried chickens contained 0-14.6% tFA and
French fries 5.2-18.8%. tFA were not detected in noodles, nuts, chocolates
and fermented fish sauces.
Record 25 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria by lacticin NK24, a
bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis NK24 from fermented fish food.
AU: Hae-Jung-Kim; Na-Kyoung-Lee; Sang-Moon-Cho; Kee-Tae-Kim; Hyun-Dong-Paik
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology; 31 (4) 1035-1043, 19
AB: A lactic acid bacterium tentatively identified as Lactococcus lactis
NK24, isolated from jeot-gal (a Korean fermented fish food), demonstrated
broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Bacteriocin (lacticin NK24) production
by the bacterium was detected at the mid-log growth phase, reaching a
max. in early stationary phase. Lacticin NK24 was partially purified by
75% ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis. Partially purified
lacticin NK24 showed antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic
and food spoilage bacteria.
Record 26 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Lactic acid bacteria found in fermented fish in Thailand.
AU: Somboon-Tanasupawat; Okada-S; Komagata-K
SO: Journal-of-General-and-Applied-Microbiology; 44 (3) 193-200, 31 ref.
AB: Forty-seven strains of homofermentative rod-shaped and 5 heterofermentative
cocci lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 4 kinds of fermented fish
(pla-ra, pla-chom, kung-chom and hoi-dong) in Thailand. Bacteria were
separated into 4 groups by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics,
including fluorometric DNA-DNA hybridization. 5 strains (Group I) contained
meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. 4 strains were identified as
Lactobacillus pentosus, and 1 strain was L. plantarum. Tested strains
of this group produced DL-lactic acid. The remaining rod-shaped bacteria
(23 strains (Group II) and 19 strains (Group III)), lacked meso-diaminopimelic
acid in the cell wall, produced L-lactic acid and were identified as L.
farciminis and Lactobacillus spp., respectively. The amount of cellular
fatty acids of C16:0 and C18:1, and the DNA base compositions were significant
for differentiating the strains in Groups II and III. Five strains of
cocci in chains (Group IV) produced gas from glucose and produced D-lactic
acid. They were identified as a Leuconostoc spp. The distribution of these
bacteria in fermented fish in Thailand is discussed.
Record 27 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: [Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning after consumption of rakefisk.]
SO: Norsk-Veterinaertidsskrift; 111 (4) 255-256, 2 ref.
AB: An outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning in Nesby, Norway,
is described, in which 12 of 22 people who consumed rakeorret (a fermented
fish product) developed gastrointestinal symptoms starting 2-5.5 h after
consumption of the fish product. Samples of the rakeorret had S. aureus
counts up to 11 x 10-6/g, and contained S. aureus enterotoxin type A;
cultures of the S. aureus strain isolated from the rakeorret also formed
this enterotoxin. Methods used for preparation of this batch of rakeorret
are discussed; it is suggested that lack of refrigeration may have permitted
growth of S. aureus.
Record 28 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Screening and identification of the fibrinolytic bacterial strain
from jeot-gal, salt-fermented fish.
AU: Young-Ryeol-Jang; Won-Keuk-Kim; Ik-Boo-Kwon; Hyun-Yong-Lee
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology; 30 (3) 655-659, 22
AB: A bacterial strain showing strong fibrinolytic activity (2.04 plasmin
unit) from jeot-gal, Korean salt-fermented fish, collected from various
regions was screened. When the strain was characterized morphologically,
culturally and biochemically, it was identified as Bacillus pumilus. When
fatty acid composition of the strain was analysed, it was identified as
Bacillus atropheus. The 16S rRNA partial sequence (V3 region) showed that
the fibrinolytic strain was Bacillus subtilis. So, it was named Bacillus
subtilis KJ-48. [From En summ]
Record 29 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Accelerating effect of squid viscera on the fermention of Alaska pollack
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 4 (2) 103-106, 17 ref.
AB: Fish sauce is a liquid form of salt-fermented fish and is an important
part of the Korean diet. Fish sauce was manufactured using Alaska pollack
(Theragra chalcogramma) scraps from Himedara (seasoned and dried Alaska
pollack tail) processing; effects of squid viscera on fermentation were
also evaluated. pH of Alaska pollack scrap sauce with added squid viscera
was lower than that of the control over the entire fermentation process.
Addition of squid viscera also accelerated production of amino-nitrogen,
volatile basic nitrogen, TBA and free amino acids, and degradation of
disodium 5'-inosinate and inosine. Squid viscera and koji, added at concn.
of 5%, also accelerated digestion of Alaska pollack scrap and provided
similar results to those observed on addition of squid viscera at 10%
Record 30 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Exposure to N-nitroso compounds in a population of high liver cancer
regions in Thailand: volatile nitrosamine (VNA) levels in Thai food.
AU: Mitacek-EJ; Brunnemann-KD; Suttajit-M; Martin-N; Limsila-T; Ohshima-H;
SO: Food-and-Chemical-Toxicology; 37 (4) 297-305, 66 ref.
AB: Dietary exposure to volatile nitrosamines (VNA) may partially underlie
the high incidence of liver cancer in Thailand. The VNA concn. in greater
than 1800 fresh and preserved (dried, salted and fermented) Thai foods
and beer, collected between 1988 and 1996, were examined; nitrate and
nitrite concn. were also examined to investigate whether concn. were correlated
with those of VNA in foods. VNA levels were examined by GC-thermal energy
analysis. VNA were detected in pork sausages, fermented pork, ham, beef
(salted and dried), fermented fish, other fish products (including salted
and dried), and beer; VNA were not found in curry dishes, soups, fried
dishes, rice dishes or noodle dishes. 6 kinds of fermented fish (95 samples)
contained significant amounts of _1 VNA (N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA),
N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine). In salted or dried
fish, levels of NDMA ranged from trace amounts to levels as high as 66.5
mug/kg. NDMA and NPYR were detected in some fermented vegetable products
and high concn. were observed in some samples of fermented beans (Tau-chiau).
Concn. of VNA were not correlated with concn. of nitrates or nitrites
in Thai foods. Dietary intake data for 4 major regions (north, northeast,
central and south) of Thailand were used to estimate regional exposure
to dietary VNA. Dietary exposure to VNA was estimated to be highest in
north and northeastern Thailand. The possible role of dietary VNA exposure
in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma
(CCA) is discussed. Regional differences in dietary VNA exposure may partially
explain the marked geographical differences in incidence of HCC and CCA
observed in Thailand.
Record 31 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Dietary portion size intake of fermented foods, selected insects and
animals in North Eastern rural Thailand.
AU: Pasamai-Eg-Kantrong; Orapin-Banjong
SO: Food-; 29 (2) 94-106, 7 ref.
AB: Dietary consumption practices are often influenced by local customs
and food availability. Quantities of traditional Thai fermented foods
and indigenous insects and small animals consumed in 1 day in the diets
of 211 pregnant women, 295 breast-feeding mothers, 215 pre-school children
(2-5 yr) and 383 children of school age (5-12 yr) were studied using the
24 h recall method. Percentages of target groups consuming each food group
during the dry season (Feb.-April) were: fermented meat, 23-61%; pickled
vegetables, 8-14%; insects, 7-19%; and small animals, 8-10%. Fermented
foods eaten by all groups included salted fermented fish, sour fermented
fish, salted freshwater fish, salted marine fish, fermented pork, fermented
beef, salted beef, pork sausage and beef sausage. Portion sizes of all
fermented foods were 4-52 g/day, apart from salted fermented fish which
was consumed in smaller quantities (2.5-5 g/day). Pickled vegetables consumed
were pickled mustard greens, pickled pag sein, pickled onion leaves and
pickled bamboo shoots, in quantities of 34-86 g/day amongst mothers, whilst
daily portions of popular insects (june beetle, cricket and ant eggs)
were 8-44 g; daily consumption of indigenous animals (ground lizard, snake,
rabbit, mice and birds) was in the range 23-33 g. [From En summ. &
Record 32 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Umami in Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia.
SO: Food-Reviews-International; 14 (2/3, Special issue on umami) 247-256,
AB: Condiments and seasonings currently and historically used for umami
flavouring in dishes popular in Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia are discussed.
Topics considered include: use of `dashi' (a soup stock usually made from
dried bonito, kelp seaweed and dried shiitake mushrooms) to impart umami
flavour to Japanese dishes; importance of `shoyu' (fermented soybean sauce)
and `miso' (fermented cereal paste) for umami flavour in Japanese cooking;
production of shoyu in Japan and its gradual introduction to western countries;
use of `shiokara' (fermented fish with salt) as a condiment or side dish
for umami flavour in Korean dishes; and fermented fish sauces used for
umami flavour in other regions of Asia.
Record 33 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Umami taste and traditional seasonings.
SO: Food-Reviews-International; 14 (2/3, Special issue on umami) 213-246,
AB: Umami flavour characteristics of condiments and seasonings used around
the world are discussed, with reference to: traditional use of condiments
and seasonings having umami flavour properties; and chemical composition
and free amino acid levels in a range of condiments and seasonings, including:
fermented fish and shrimp sauces, and pastes popular in Asian countries;
fermented bean products (including soy sauce); concentrated extracts (including
commercial yeast and beef extracts, oyster sauce and dried bonito); and
other seasonings (including processed tomato products).
Record 34 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt
fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation.
AU: Paludan-Muller-C; Huss-HH; Gram-L
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 46 (3) 219-229, 37 ref.
AB: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on raw materials and during fermentation
of som-fak, a Thai product composed of minced fish fillets, 2-5% salt,
2-12% ground boiled rice and 4% minced garlic (packed in banana leaves
and fermented for 2-5 days at 30 degree C), were examined, to determine
species required for fermentation. The significance of the garlic and
rice as substrates for fermentation was also evaluated. LAB isolated from
raw materials and som-fak at 0,1, 2, 4 and 5 days of fermentation were
characterized by phenotyping, and evaluated for ability to ferment starch,
garlic and inulin in model substrates. Fermentation of som-fak without
and with garlic was also examined. 185 LAB were identified and classified
according to origin and species. At the beginning of fermentation, Leuconostoc
spp., Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus lactis subsp. lactis dominated
the microflora, followed by more acid-tolerant Lactobacillus species,
such as L. curvatus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum, the latter
dominating towards the end of fermentation. Fermenting properties of strains
were generally associated with the main carbohydrate substrate of their
origin - starch fermenters originated from rice and garlic/inulin fermenters
from garlic and banana leaves. Minced fish contained both types. In som-fak,
a succession of garlic-fermenting L. plantarum strains was identified,
suggesting that garlic may be a more important carbohydrate source than
rice starch during fermentation. Initial presence and growth of LAB able
to ferment garlic proved essential for rapid reduction of pH. Thus, garlic
may have a dual role, by inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts
and providing a fermentation substrate.
Record 35 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11AN: 1999-07-A1047
TI: Marinospirillum gen. nov., with descriptions of Marinospirillum megaterium
sp. nov., isolated from kusaya gravy, and transfer of Oceanospirillum
minutulum to Marinospirillum minutulum comb. nov.
AU: Satomi-M; Kimura-B; Hayashi-M; Shouzen-Y; Okuzumi-M; Fujii-T
SO: International-Journal-of-Systematic-Bacteriology; 48 (4) 1341-1348,
AB: Kusaya gravy is a traditional Japanese fermented brine used in the
preparation of fermented fish. Phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic
characteristics of 2 strains of helical, halophilic, Gram negative bacteria
isolated from kusaya gravy were examined. The strains were motile by means
of a single polar or bipolar tuft flagellum, had a large cell size, formed
coccoid bodies, were microaerophilic and had quinone type Q-8. The DNA
G+C content of the strains was 44-45 mol%. Data revealed that the strains
represent a new species of halophilic helical bacteria. The sequence of
the 16S rRNA gene of strain H7-T, designated the type strain of the new
isolates, and all of the Oceanospirillum spp., except for O. linum, were
determined. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains were closely
related to O. minutulum, with enough distance to separate the O. minutulum/new
isolate H7-T cluster from O. sensu stricto on the genus level. It is proposed
that a new genus, Marinospirillum, be created; this genus should include
M. minutulum ATCC 19193-T (formerly O. minutulum) as the type species,
as well as M. megaterium JCM 10129-T (= H7-T). [From En summ.]
Record 36 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Microbiology of fermented foods.
AU: Wood-BJB [Editor]
SO: xx +440pp. ISBN 0-7514-0216-8, many ref.
AB: The second edition of this 2-volume book provides an updated and expanded
look at the microbiology of a wide range of foodstuffs from diverse cultures.
Important topics covered by the first edition have been revised. The book
should be of interest to microbiologists and biotechnologists involved
in the industrial production of fermented foods. It also provides invaluable
information for academics and students who are researching food microbiology
and fermentation. Vol. 1 contains the following chapters: Vinegar (pp.
1-44, many ref.); The microbiology of vegetable fermentations (pp. 45-72,
99 ref.); Cocoa, coffee and tea (pp. 128-147, 48 ref.); Thickeners of
microbial origin (pp. 148-171, 94 ref.); Bread and baker's yeast (pp.
172-198, 81 ref.); Sourdough breads and related products (pp. 199-216,
61 ref.); The microbiology of alcoholic beverages (pp. 217-262, many ref.);
Cheeses (pp. 263-307, 98 ref.); Fermented milks (pp. 308-350, many ref.);
Fermented protein foods in the Orient: shoyu and miso in Japan (pp. 351-415,
many ref.); and Fermented fish and fish products (pp. 416-440, many ref.).
Chapters contained in volume 2 are: Fermented sausages (pp. 441-483, many
ref.); Protein-rich foods based on fermented vegetables (pp. 484-504,
many ref.); Food flavour from yeast (pp. 505-542, 89 ref.); Biology and
technology of mushroom culture (pp. 543-584, 70 ref.); Algae as food (pp.
585-602, many ref.); Bio-enrichment: production of vitamins in fermented
foods (pp. 603-619, 71 ref.); Production of industrial enzymes and some
applications in fermented foods (pp. 622-657, 10 ref.); Koji (pp. 658-695,
many ref.); Food fermentation in the tropics (pp. 696-712, 18 ref.); African
fermented foods (pp. 713-752, many ref.); Fermented foods of the Indian
subcontinent (pp. 753-789, many ref.); Fermented weaning foods (pp. 790-811,
92 ref.); Potential infective and toxic microbiological hazards associated
with the consumption of fermented foods (pp. 812-837, many ref.); and
The impact of genetic engineering on food and beverage fermentations (pp.
838-852, 16 ref.). Subject indexes are included in each volume.
Record 37 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Characterization of N-(nitrosomethyl)urea in nitrosated fermented
AU: Dajun-Deng; Tong-Li; Hong-Ma; Ruming-Wang; Liankun-Gu; Jing-Zhou
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 46 (1) 202-205, 24 ref.
AB: To characterize chemical carcinogens in acidic-nitrosated fish sauce,
N-nitrosamides in the sample were separated by 2 kinds of reversed-phase
HPLC columns, and with detection by a photolysis-pyrolysis-thermal energy
analyser. A strong chromatographic peak at retention time 12 or 4.5 min,
the same as that for N-(nitrosomethyl)urea (NMU), was obtained on PRP-1
or C18 HPLC columns from the fish sauce sample with 10mM trifluoroacetic
acid as the basic mobile; acetonitrile, as organic modifier after the
sample was nitrosated by 5 mmol/l of sodium nitrite (final concn.) at
37 degree C and pH 2.0 for 1 h. No response above retention time could
be observed from the nitrosated sample in the detection system without
photolysis. Such a peak could not be obtained from the unnitrosated fish
sauce either. These results indicated that the component was NMU. Furthermore,
this component, NMU, could also be detected in the nitrosated human gastric
juice sample spiked with fish sauce. The formation of NMU in the sample
was pH- and nitrite-dependent. This paper provides direct evidence that
NMU formation could occur in fish sauce from the high-risk area for stomach
cancer and in the fish sauce spiked human gastric juice during nitrosation
under simulated gastric conditions.
Record 38 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria from Thai
fermented fish products.
AU: Ostergaard-A; Embarek-PKB; Wedell-Neergaard-C; Huss-HH; Gram-L
SO: Food-Microbiology; 15 (2) 223-233, 47 ref.
AB: Fermentation of foods is often caused by lactic acid bacteria and
it is possible that they exert an antibacterial effect which is relevant
in both product safety and inhibition of pathogens in situ. Lactic acid
bacteria (isolated from Thai fermented fish products) which showed anti-listerial
activity were characterized, with particular reference to inhibition of
pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Growth characteristics were also determined
in order to assess their suitability for use as starters and/or biopreservatives.
Of the 44 strains examined, 43 inhibited L. monocytogenes. All strains
were inhibitory to Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus and 37 inhibited
Aeromonas spp. Identification of isolates showed that the majority (29;
65%) were Lactobacillus spp.; Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic and Carnobacterium
piscicola were also isolated. Rice (which is added to fish products and
serves as a carbohydrate source), potatoes and corn starch were only fermented
by 4 isolates, indicating that other bacterial species may be responsible
for the rapid fermentation of products. Results of growth profiles indicated
that isolates were unsuitable for use as live biopreservatives in chilled
products. It is concluded that lactic acid bacteria with a broad inhibitory
spectrum are not uncommon in Thai fermented fish products and are likely
to contribute to their safety and stability.
Record 39 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Characterization of fermented fish waste used in feeding trials with
AU: Hammoumi-A; Faid-M; El-Yachioui-M; Amarouch-H
SO: Process-Biochemistry; 33 (4) 423-427, 14 ref.
AB: Use of fish waste for animal feed production was investigated. Chopped
pilchard (sardine,Sardina pilchardus) waste was mixed with 15% cane molasses,
inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and fermented
at 22 degree C for 20 days. Nutritional quality and biochemical properties
were monitored during fermentation. The fermented product was used to
make 3 formulas which were assessed in broiler feeding trials. Results
indicate considerable potential for use of fish waste for poultry feeding.
Record 40 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Aroma-active compounds in skipjack tuna sauce.
AU: Cha-YJ; Cadwallader-KR
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 46 (3) 1123-1128, 44 ref.
AB: [Fish sauce, a clear brown liquid hydrolysate of salted fish, is a
popular fermented fish product in Asia.] Volatile compounds in skipjack
tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) viscera (STV) and tuna sauce (TS) made from
STV were analysed by vacuum simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction,
GC, MS, olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis. Predominant
odorants in STV were lipid-derived compounds such as (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal
(stale/peanut-like), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal
(fatty/rancid fat-like), (E)-2-nonenal (stale, bitter), and (Z)-4-heptenal
(fishy/rancid) and unidentified compounds having grassy, fresh fish-like
odours. In contrast to STV, potent odorants in TS were mostly thermally
generated compounds such as 3-(methylthio)propanal (baked potato-/soy
sauce-like), dimethyl trisulphide (cooked cabbage-like), and -methylbutanal
(dark chocolate-like). Additional potent odorants in TS were (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal,
(E)-2-nonenal, a phenylacetaldehyde (honesuckle-like), and 2 unidentified
compounds having nutty, baked potato-, vitamin- and cooked rice-like odours.
2 amino acids, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, were predominant in both
Record 41 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: The study of the amount of trace elements in some fermented fish products
(jeot-gal) from some areas of the west coast in Korea.
AU: Soon-Kyung-Kim; Ae-Jung-Kim
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 26 (6)
1063-1067, 25 ref.
AB: Levels of trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Mn, Pb and Cd) in salt-fermented
fish products from the west coast of Korea were studied using ICP spectroscopy.
Samples used were shrimp (seawoo-jeot), clam (jogai-jeot), oyster (orikul-jeot),
big eyed herring (bendeng-ie jeot), mysis (gonjeng-ie jeot), hwangandali
(hwangsegi-jeot) and squid (han chi-jeot): moisture contents of the respective
samples before freezing drying were 68.36, 71.52, 81.19, 62.27, 71.30,
64.27 and 66.74%. Fe contents were 66.46, 309.10, 27.03, 23.01, 132.45,
35.75 and 9.72 p.p.m.; Cu contents were 4.60, 4.36, 3.75, 2.21, 10.36,
2.71 and 58.15 p.p.m.; Zn contents were 16.02, 75.06, 37.43, 28.43, 132.35,
35.75 and 9.72 p.p.m.; Cr contents were 0.80, 1.61, 0.84, 0.96, 1.12,
0.96 and 0.59 p.p.m.; Co contents were 0.13, 0.54, 0.31, 0.46, 0.50, 0.63
and 0.35 p.p.m.; Mn contents were 7.30, 10.69, 14.87, 4.12, 8.03, 2.94
and 1.54 p.p.m.; Pb contents were 1.80, 4.30, 2.53, 4.61, 3.08, 5.04 and
2.74 p.p.m.; and Cd contents were 0.005, 0.03, 0.06, 0.005, 0.01, 0.00
and 0.10 p.p.m. [From En summ.]
Record 42 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Effect of kimchi extracts to reactive oxygen species in skin cell
AU: Seung-Hee-Ryu; Young-Soo-Jeon; Myung-Ja-Kwon; Jung-Won-Moon; Young-Soon-Lee;
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 26 (5)
814-821, 28 ref.
AB: Kimchi is composed of many ingredients such as Chinese cabbage, garlic,
ginger, red pepper and fermented fish extract; some of them are known
to have antioxidative activities due to their scavenging effect against
reactive oxygen species (ROS). To study the health effects of kimchi on
human skin cells, keratinocytes (A431, epidermal carcinoma, human) and
fibroblasts (CCD-986SK, normal control, human) were cultured under oxidative
stress conditions provoked by paraquat, a superoxide anion generator,
and H2O2 in the absence and presence of kimchi extract. Survival rate
of the keratinocytes was greatly reduced when they were exposed to concn.
of H2O2 of greater than 1mM, but cytotoxicity of H2O2 on cells was significantly
reduced by kimchi extracts. Kimchi fermented for 2 wk remarkably decreased
the cytotoxicity generated by H2O2 in keratinocytes. Paraquat concn. greater
than 1mM showed strong keratinocyte toxicity, and the extracts from kimchi
fermented for 1, 2 and 3 wk showed protective effects in that order. Fibroblasts
were significantly affected by H2O2, as were keratinocytes. Although almost
all extracts from kimchi fermented for different periods showed protective
effects against cell death when 0.5mM concn. of H2O2 were employed, extracts
from kimchies fermented for 2 wk showed the strongest protective effect
on fibroblasts treated with 1mM H2O2 for either 1 or 4 days. Most of the
kimchi extracts showed weak preventive effects or no effect at all on
oxidative stress produced by paraquat. In conclusion, extracts from kimchi
fermented for 2 wk seem to have the greatest potential in protecting skin
cells from oxidative damage; this might be related to the scavenging effects
of kimchi components produced during the fermentation process. [From En
Record 43 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Effects of proteolytic enzymes on the production of fermented beef
or pork with addition of fermented shrimp.
AU: Kim-YJ; Sung-KS; Han-CK; Jeong-JH; Kang-TS
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Animal-Science; 38 (3) 275-282, 16 ref.
AB: A study was conducted to develop a new fermented meat product, which
is similar to fermented fish sauce. Sliced beef or pork treated with proteolytic
enzymes (0.05% Novo E89L or 0.5% Pacific Protase NP) or nonenzyme treated
was incubated at 55 degree C for 4 h. Salt (25% (w/w)) and ground fermented
shrimp (10% (w/w)) were added to both nonenzyme treated and enzyme treated
samples, and mixed well. Untreated sliced meat with only 25% salt added
was used as a control. TBA and volatile basic N values, and soluble protein
content from the filtrate of each treatment were determined to evaluate
degree of fermentation during 100 days of storage at 10 or 20 degree C.
[From En summ.]
Record 44 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Lactic acid fermented foods and their benefits in Asia.
SO: Food-Control; 8 (5/6) 259-269, 33 ref.
AB: The many types of foods produced around the world by lactic fermentation
are reviewed, together with the processing methods and properties of kimchi
and sikhae, 2 Korean lactic acid fermented foods. Aspects considered include:
types of lactic acid fermented foods (acid-leavened bread and pancakes,
acid-fermented cereal gruels and beverages, acid-fermented starch ingredients,
acid-fermented vegetables, acid-fermented fish and meat); preservation
of fish by sikhae fermentation (history, processing, the microorganisms
involved, nutrition and safety); and preservation of vegetables by kimchi
fermentation (history, processing, the microorganisms involved, antipathogenic
and antimicrobial activities, physiological effects of kimchi).
Record 45 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Critical review on the microbiological standardization of salt-fermented
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science-and-Nutrition; 25 (5)
885-891, 32 ref.
AB: Various safety problems associated with fermented fish products have
affected product manufacture on a large scale. In this review, salt fermented
anchovy was used to elucidate the properties of the microorganisms involved
in its fermentation, in order to determine areas in which product quality
could be improved. Dominant species involved in product fermentation were
Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus sp.; other microoganisms
present were Vibrio sp., Clostridium sp., Serratia sp., Achromobacter
sp., Streptococcus sp., Brevibacterium sp., Halobacterium sp., Flavobacterium
sp., Corynebacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp., Sarcina sp., Staphylococcus
sp., Torulopsis sp. and Saccharomyces sp. It is suggested that, to standardize
the quality of fermented fish products, screening and isolation of microorganisms
should be carried out; proper sanitation controls should be also employed
to maintain the commercial value of the product by prolonging the shelf
life. [From En summ.]
Record 46 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Bacterial mutagenicity of terasi and antimutagenicity of Indonesian
jasmine tea against terasi.
AU: Surono-IS; Hosono-A
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 32 (1/2) 49-58, 20 ref.
AB: Terasi, a traditional fermented product of Indonesia (prepared from
fermented fish and shrimp) was evaluated using the Salmonalla mutagenesis
assay. The higher the heating temp. and the longer the heating time, the
more the mutagenicity caused by both terasi and its starter; the highest
mutagenic activity was achieved by heating at 100 degree C for 60 min.
Terasi starter has stronger mutagenic properties than terasi. Indonesian
jasmine tea (yellow tea) was examined for its antimutagenic properties
against mutagenic terasi. Tea components present in fraction C (water
soluble, chloroform and ethyl acetate insoluble fraction) as well as in
fraction D (water soluble, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol insoluble
fraction) were found to suppress the mutagenicities exerted by heated
terasi and heated terasi starter. Tea components present in fraction E
(chloroform soluble fraction) enhanced mutagenicity of terasi. [From En
Record 47 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Nutritive value of dried lactic acid fermented fish silage and soybean
meal in dry diets for juvenile catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell,
AU: Fagbenro-O; Jauncey-K; Krueger-R
13 (1) 27-30, 23 ref.
AB: Comparative 70 day feeding trials were conducted on groups of young
African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) to assess effects of diets based
on fish meal or a lactic acid fermented fish silage/soybean meal mix on
growth and composition. The diets fed contained equal protein concn. Results
showed that the fish silage/soybean meal diet gave poorer growth and feed
efficiency than the fish meal diet. Protein content of the catfish carcasses
was lower for catfish fed the fish silage/soybean meal diet than for fish
fed the fish meal diet (14.67 vs. 15.85% respectively). Moisture, lipid
and ash contents of the fish carcasses were unaffected by the diets studied.
Record 48 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Lactic acid fermented foods and their benefits in Asia.
SO: Foods-and-Biotechnology; 5 (3) 187-197, 27 ref.
AB: This paper reviews many types of the world's lactic acid fermented
foods [including acid-leavened bread and pancakes, acid-fermented cereal
gruel, and beverages, acid-fermented starches, acid-fermented vegetables
and acid-fermented fish and newt]. In particular, the beneficial effects
of lactic fermentation of food are considered by focusing on 2 examples
taken from Korean cuisine, kimchi and sikhae. Sikhae is the generic name
of a class of Korean lactic acid fermented fish products that contain
6-8% salt and generally are at pH 4-5. Koreans are able to preserve fish
for 1-2 months at ambient temperatures by this method. Due to the low
salt content, sikhae contributes much-needed protein to the Korean rice-based
diet. Kimchi is the generic name for a class of Korean lactic acid fermented
vegetables that contain 3-4% salt and generally are at pH 4.0-4.5. Kimchi
is an important source of vitamins and minerals especilly during the wintertime.
It is a popular dish and provides a source of intestinal lactic acid bacteria.
The physiological effects of kimchi have been studied widely in Korea
and recent results are summarized in this paper.
Record 49 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Antimutagenicity of milk cultured with lactic acid bacteria from dadih
against mutagenic terasi.
AU: Surono-IS; Hosono-A
SO: Milchwissenschaft-; 51 (9) 493-497, 30 ref.
AB: Previous studies have shown that lactic acid bacteria isolated from
dadih, a traditional Indonesian fermented milk of Indonesia, are able
to bind mutagens and inhibit mutagenic nitrosamines. The antimutagenicity
of milk cultured with lactic acid bacteria from dadih against terasi,
an Indonesian fermented fish/shrimp product shown to be mutagenic using
the Ames test, was investigated. Milks were inoculated with 1 each of
24 lactic acid bacteria isolated from dadih and incubated for up to 24
h at either 30 or 37 degree C depending on the species. Growth parameters
of the bacteria and antimutagenicity against terasi extracts were determined.
Generally, all milks cultured with dadih lactic acid bacteria displayed
antimutagenic activity towards terasi extract although wide variation
was observed. Highest antimutagenicity was displayed by milk cultured
with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-52, which showed 96.93% inhibition,
while lowest antimutagenicity (29.39% inhibition) was observed for milk
cultured with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis R-63. Results suggest that
the fermented milk product suppresses mutagenesis in a desmutagenic manner.
Bacterial strains with the greatest antimutagenic properties also had
highest viable counts during incubation. Since terasi is widely consumed
in Indonesia, it is suggested that consumption of dadih will be beneficial.
Record 50 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Effects of salt-fermented fish and chitosan addition on the pectic
substance and the texture changes of kimchi during fermentation.
AU: Sun-Choung-Ahn; Gui-Ju-Lee
SO: Journal-of-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science; 11 (3) 309-315, 19 ref.
AB: Effects of fermented sea food sauces (shrimp and anchovy) and chitosan
on the composition and texture of kimchies were investigated. During fermentation,
pH of kimchies prepared with shrimp and anchovy sauces decreased; addition
of chitosan gave an increase in acidity. Addition of sauces or chitosan
resulted in a decrease in the compression force of kimchies; the decrease
was greater for kimchies prepared using sea food sauces than with those
made with chitosan. During fermentation, hot water soluble pectin levels
in control kimchies (without chitosan or sea food sauces), and kimchies
made with sea food sauces increased, while HCl soluble pectin levels decreased;
the opposite was observed in kimchies containing chitosan. Kimchies made
with chitosan had higher hardness, crispness and chewiness values than
the other kimchies. Results showed that pH and acidity and compression
force were highly correlated with crispness. It is concluded that addition
of chitosan to kimchies influences pectic substance levels and improves
their textural properties. [From En summ. & tables.]
Record 51 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Changes of microbial and chemical components in salt-fermented youbsak
during the fermentation.
AU: Ho-Chul-Yang; Hee-Jong-Chung
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology; 27 (2) 185-192, 26
AB: Changes in microorganisms in and composition of salt fermented youbsak,
a traditional fermented fish product, were studied. Total microbial count
of youbsak gradually increased during 30 days fermentation and then decreased.
There was a rapid decrease in pH and acidity after 15 days fermentation.
Volatile basic nitrogen and amino nitrogen increased rapidly up to 30
days fermentation, then decreased slightly with addition of broth from
bones of swine. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid in youbsak; major
free amino acids in youbsak were leucine, tyrosine, glutamic acid, valine,
isoleucine, alanine and methionine. [From En summ.]
Record 52 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: [Bioconversion of fishing industry residues.]
AU: Morales-Ulloa-DF; Oetterer-M
SO: Ciencia-e-Tecnologia-de-Alimentos; 15 (3) 206-214, 35 ref.
AB: Large amounts of processing wastes are produced in the Brazilian fish
industry. Effects of fermentation of these wastes, which contain high
levels of nutrients, on their composition and nutritional properties were
investigated. Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) wastes were acidified
with a 3:1 mixture of formic and propionic acids, supplemented with molasses
and inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and/or
Pediococcus acidilactici). Fermentations were carried out for up to 2
wk; protein, fat, carbohydrate, water and ash contents were determined
after 48 h, 1 wk and 2 wk. After 2 wk, the pH of the wastes remained stable
at 4.18-4.23. Fermentation increased the in vitro protein digestibility
of the wastes in all cases. The nutritional value of the fermented wastes
was examined using dietary studies with rats. It is concluded that fermented
fish wastes have potential as a food supplement. [From En summ.]
Record 53 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Physicochemical and microbiological changes associated with bakasang
processing - a traditional Indonesian fermented fish sauce.
AU: Ijong-FG; Ohta-Y
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 71 (1) 69-74, 18 ref.
AB: The production of bakasang, an Indonesian fermented fish sauce, was
replicated in the laboratory in order to study the physicochemical and
microbiological changes associated with the process. Bakasang samples
were produced by incubating mixtures of small Japanese anchovy (Engraulis
japonicus) at different concn. of sodium chloride and glucose at 37 degree
C for 40 days. Changes in pH, total soluble nitrogen, total free amino
nitrogen, amino acid composition and total plate counts were observed
by collecting and analysing samples after 0, 4, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days
of fermentation. Isolation and identification of microflora were also
performed. pH decreased throughout the incubation period, irrespective
of NaCl and glucose concn., and increases in amounts of total soluble
nitrogen and total free amino nitrogen were noticed. The amino acids glutamic
acid, alanine, isoleucine and lysine were prominent at the end of the
process. The total plate count increased during the first 10 days and
then decreased gradually for both total microbial population and lactic
acid bacteria population. Micrococcus, Streptococcus and Pediococcus spp.
were predominant during bakasang fermentation.
Record 54 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Study of the differences between two salt qualities on microbiology,
lipid and water-extractable components of momoni, a Ghanaian fermented
AU: Yankah-VV; Ohshima-T; Ushio-H; Fujii-T; Koizumi-C
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 71 (1) 33-40, 23 ref.
AB: Lipid oxidation and low final product quality observed during processing
and storage of a Ghanaian fermented fish product (momoni) were investigated.
Quality of salts used in the curing procedures, i.e. crude solar salt
and refined salt, which has lower moisture and microbial load than crude
salt were determined. Japanese mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) were used
as raw materials. Salt was added to fish at 150 g/kg and fermentation
was conducted at 26 degree C. Samples were stored for 60 days at 60% RH.
Samples were analysed during fermentation and after 2 wk, and 1 and 2
months of storage. Differences after fermentation and storage of both
refined-salted and crude-salted fish were as follows: decrease in aw of
fish during processing was slower with crude salt than with refined salt;
volatile basic N and total microbiological counts were higher in crude-salted
fish; and the polyamine of highest concn. in crude-salted samples was
histamine, whilst cadaverine concn. dominated in fish fermented with refined
salt. TBA reactive substances and peroxide values of the extracted total
lipids increased during processing and free fatty acid and diglyceride
concn. were higher in the crude-salted fish than in the samples cured
with refined salt. Polyenoic fatty acid levels were higher in samples
fermented with refined salt; levels of total cholesterol oxides were higher
in crude-salted samples. It is concluded that use of refined salt is to
be preferred over the use of crude salt, as it leads to a better quality
product. [From En summ.]
Record 55 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Biogenic amines: their importance in foods.
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Microbiology; 29 (2/3) 213-231, many
AB: Formation and properties of biogenic amines in foods are reviewed.
Aspects considered include: the definition of biogenic amines, amine precursors
and prerequisites for biogenic amine synthesis; presence in non-fermented
foods (fish, fruit juices, fruits, vegetables, meat, milk); biogenic amines
in fermented foods (cheese and dairy products, fermented vegetables, fermented
meat products, wine and beer, fermented fish products); microorganisms
producing biogenic amines; factors affecting amine decarboxylase activity;
function and physiological significance of biogenic amines in foods; toxicology;
and analytical methods for determination of biogenic amines in foods.
Record 56 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: The occurrence of Bacillus cereus in local Thai traditional foods.
AU: Gasaluck-P; Yokoyama-K; Kimura-T; Sugahara-I
SO: Journal-of-Antibacterial-and-Antifungal-Agents,-Japan; 24 (5) 349-356,
AB: A total of 589 strains of Bacillus was isolated from local traditional
foods (kapi (shrimp paste), nam-pla (fish sauce), pla-ra (fermented fish),
pla-kem (semi-dried salted fish), phak-dong (fermented vegetables) and
yiaw-bong (fermented fish cooked with spices and condiments)), spices,
rice flour and well water collected from villages and local markets in
NE Thailand. Prevalence of B. cereus and enterotoxin synthesis by B. cereus
were examined. 20 of the 439 Bacillus strains isolated on bonito extract-polypeptone-glucose
agar and 46 of the 150 strains isolated using NGKG/MS (mannitol-salt)
agar were B. cereus. Of these 66 strains of B. cereus, 23 produced enterotoxins.
Enterotoxin-producing strains were detected in kapi, nam-pla, pla-kem,
rice flour, glutinous rice flour and well water. Of the enterotoxigenic
strains, 18 hydrolysed starch. Most B. cereus strains tested were sensitive
to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol.
All strains tested were resistant to polymyxin B. Enterotoxins produced
by B. cereus were detected by a reversed passive agglutination method,
but did not show haemolytic or lecithinase activity after treatment at
100 degree C for 60 min. [From En summ.]
Record 57 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: A survey on the children's notion in kimchi. I. Children's preferences
AU: Yeong-Ok-Song; Eun-Hee-Kim; Myung-Kim; Jung-Won-Moon
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-and-Nutrition; 24 (5) 758-764,
AB: A survey on the kimchi preferences among elementary school students
in Pusan, Korea, was conducted in April 1995 to collect information needed
for the development of special kimchi for the children. 1100 children
in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade from public and private elementary school participated
in the survey. 68% of students stated that they liked kimchi. However,
kimchi preference (17.6%) when surveyed amongst other side dishes (pork
cutlet, ham, sausage (54.1%), egg roll (9.4%), soysauced beef (8.2%),
toasted laver (6.3%), bean sprout namul (3.0%), danmooji (1.0%), and squash
namul (0.4%)) was relatively low. It is suggested that elementary school
students prefer processed food, especially animal food, to kimchi. The
spicy flavour of kimchi was the most popular reason for dislike of kimchi,
and also the most important reason for those who liked kimchi. Chinese
cabbage kimchi was found to be the most favourite kimchi followed by kakdugi
(seasoned pickles of cubed radish), nabak-kimchi (mildly seasoned water
based kimchi that is mixture of Chinese cabbage and cubed radish) and
chonggag kimchi (seasoned pickles of pony tail radish) and cucumber kimchi.
Among the various ingredients in kimchi, children preferred cabbage most,
and they disliked garlic, ginger, green onion and fermented fish sauce
which impart strong flavour to kimchies. [From En summ. See following
abstr. for part II.]
Record 58 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Lactic acid bacteria in fermented foods in Thailand.
AU: Tanasupawat-S; Komagata-K
SO: World-Journal-of-Microbiology-&-Biotechnology; 11 (3) 253-256,
AB: The distribution and function of lactic acid bacteria in fermented
foods made in Thailand are reviewed. Aspects considered include: traditional
fermented foods in Thailand (fermented fish, meat, vegetable and cereal
products); production of fermented foods; levels and distribution of lactic
acid bacteria in fermented foods; and functions of lactic acid bacteria
(lactic acid production and reduction of pH, enzyme production, production
of antimicrobial compounds).
Record 59 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Characterization of starch-hydrolyzing lactic acid bacteria isolated
from a fermented fish and rice food, 'burong isda', and its amylolytic
AU: Olympia-M; Fukuda-H; Ono-H; Kaneko-Y; Takano-M
SO: Journal-of-Fermentation-and-Bioengineering; 80 (2) 124-130, 42 ref.
AB: Nine strains of lactic acid bacteria that hydrolyse starch were isolated
from burong isda, an indigenous (Philippines) fermented food made from
fish and rice. Conventional taxonomic and DNA-DNA reassociation studies
indicated that all isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum. Each isolate
harboured greater than 10 plasmid species with molecular sizes of 2 to
60 kb. Amylolytic amylase activity of one of the isolates, L137, was lost
by treatment with novobiocin (frequency 43%) which was concomitant with
curing of a 33-kb plasmid designated pLTK13. It is suggested that pLTK13
carries a gene necessary for the synthesis of an amylolytic enzyme. An
acidophilic starch-hydrolysing enzyme secreted from L137 cells was purified
46-fold (specific activity of 44 U/mg protein). The enzyme had a molecular
mass of approx. 230 kDa; optimum temp. and pH for the enzyme reaction
with soluble starch were 35 degree C and 3.8-4.0, repectively. The enzyme
hydrolysed soluble starch, amylopectin, glycogen and pullulan and, to
a lesser extent, amylose; it exerted no activity on dextran and cyclodextrins.
Major reaction products from soluble starch were maltotriose, maltotetraose
and maltopentaose; panose was not detected and maltotriose was the sole
product from pullulan. Km values for soluble starch, pullulan and amylose
were 4.0, 5.1 and 33 g/l, respectively. Results suggest that this enzyme
hydrolyses both alpha-1,6- and alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages. [From En
Record 60 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Microflora and chemical assessment of an Indonesian traditional fermented
fish sauce 'bakasang'.
AU: Ijong-FG; Ohta-Y
34 (2) 95-100, 16 ref.
AB: Microflora and chemical properties of bakasang, a traditional fermented
fish sauce from Indonesia, were investigated. 5 samples of bakasang were
obtained from local markets or supermarkets in Indonesia. Samples were
analysed for moisture, salt, total lipid, crude protein, amino acid composition
and pH. Microbial analysis determined total plate count, lactic acid bacteria
(LAB), total coliforms and spore forming bacteria (SFB) in samples. All
samples had similar moisture contents, pH ranged from 5.4 to 6.3 and salt
concn. varied significantly, from 8 to 18%. Crude lipid and protein contents
ranged from 14 to 17% and 0.1 to 3.0%, respectively. Total aerobic and
anaerobic counts were similar for all samples. Total LAB ranged from 4.8
to 6.15 (log cfu/ml). No coliform bacteria were detected in samples and
SFB (Clostridium sp.) were found in 2 of the 5 samples analysed. Staphylococcus
sp. and Lactobacillus sp. were the main organisms isolated. Predominant
amino acids were glutamic acid, phenylalanine and isoleucine.
Record 61 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: A study on histamine content in preserved fish products.
AU: Srisomboon-P; Jaengsawang-C; Chareanvitvorakul-M
SO: Food-; 25 (1) 35-42, 9 ref.
AB: Histamine levels in preserved fish products (26 fish sauce samples,
15 tropical fermented fish samples and 24 sun dried anchovy samples) intended
for export were determined by a fluorometric method with a detection limit
of 5 mg/kg. All samples were found to contain histamine. Mean histamine
levels and range of histamine content in fish sauces, fermented fish and
sun dried anchovies were 292.8 (36.7-1031.1), 114.7 (10.5-443.7) and 174
(5.0-1424.1) mg/kg, respectively. 35.4 % of the preserved fish product
samples contained greater than 200 mg/kg histamine. It is concluded that
the high histamine levels found indicate poor handling and/or processing
of these products. Education on hygienic handling of raw materials and
proper process control are recommended for local health authorities and
producers. [From En summ.]
Record 62 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Amino acid compositions of bakasang, a traditional fermented fish
sauce from Indonesia.
AU: Ijong-FG; Ohta-Y
SO: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft-und-Technologie; 28 (2) 236-237, 8 ref.
AB: Bakasang is a traditional salt-fermented fish (sardine) sauce widely
consumed in eastern Indonesia. Traditional manufacture involves several
parameters and the effects of these on quality are unknown. Chemical and
amino acid composition of bakasang manufactured under laboratory conditions
was determined and compared to traditionally produced bakasang; effecs
of NaCl concn. and stable temp. were also investigated. Using 100 g salt/kg
sardines gave more hydrolysed products than if 200 g/kg was used. Traditional
bakasang is fermented under variable temp. and gave a lower total amino
acid content than when fermented at constant temp. Glutamic acid, lysine
and isoleucine were the predominant amino acids in both traditional and
laboratory bakasang, although phenylalanine was also high in traditional
Record 63 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Composition and nutritive value of sun-dried Puntius sophore.
AU: Sarojnalini-C; Vishwanath-W
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 31 (6) 480-483, 23
AB: Proximate composition and digestibility of sun-dried Puntius sophore,
a low-cost variety of sun-dried fish used in a traditional Indian fermented
fish paste (ngari), were evaluated. Samples contained (%) moisture 18.1,
proteins 45.0, lipids 18.5 and ash 11.0. In vitro digestibility of protein
by pepsin was 44.1% in 2 h, as opposed to 55.7% by pepsin + trypsin in
24 h. Feeding trials were conducted using laboratory rats, and biological
value, food conversion ratio and PER were determined. Total volatile basic
nitrogen, TBA number and peroxide value were also determined for the samples,
and were found to be within acceptable limits. [From En summ.]
Record 64 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Volatile components in salt-fermented fish and shrimp pastes.
AU: Cha-YJ; Cadwallader-KR
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 60 (1) 19-24, 38 ref.
AB: Volatile compounds in salt-fermented anchovy [Engraulis japonica],
big-eyed herring [Harengula zunasi], hair tail [Trichiurus japonica] viscera,
and shrimp [Acetes chinensis] pastes were compared by simultaneous steam
distillation-solvent extraction/GC/MS. A total of 155 volatile compounds
were detected. Of these, 111 were positively identified, consisting mainly
of aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters, aromatics, and nitrogen- and
sulphur-containing compounds. Lipid-derived components, such as aldehydes,
alcohols, and esters, comprised the majority of volatile compounds from
fish pastes, while heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds, such as
pyrazines, were predominant in shrimp paste.
Record 65 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Aeration-controlled formation of acetic acid in heterolactic fermentations.
AU: Adler-Nissen-J; Demain-AL
SO: Journal-of-Industrial-Microbiology; 13 (6) 335-343, 21 ref.
AB: Controlled aeration of Leuconostoc mesenteroides [isolated from a
Korean fermented fish product] was studied as a possible mechanism for
control of the formation of acetic acid, a metabolite of major influence
on the taste of lactic fermented foods. Fermentations were carried out
in small scale in a medium in which growth was limited by the buffer capacity
only. Ethanol and acetic acid formed during the fermentation were analysed
by rapid head-space GC, and the ratio of the molar concn. of these 2 volatiles
quantitatively predicted the balance between the formation of acetic acid
and lactic acid. O2 concn. during the fermentation decreased rapidly to
zero, indicating that O2 transfer was limited by the volumetric O2 transfer
rate (k1aC-*). A linear correlation between k1aC-* and the quantity of
acetic acid produced was established. It is suggested that such oxygenated
heterolactic fermentation processes should be analysed as fed-batch fermentations
with O2 as the limiting substrate. Addition of fructose in limited amounts
resulted in the formation of 0.5 mol of acetic acid for each mole of fructose,
thus offering an alternative mechanism for controlling acetic acid formation.
Record 66 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Changes in the composition of free amino acids, organic acids and
lipids during processing and ripening of 'hatahata-zushi', a fermented
fish product of sandfish (Arctoscopus japonicus) and boiled rice.
AU: Chun-Ming-Chang; Ohshima-T; Koizumi-C
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 66 (1) 75-82, 12 ref.
AB: Changes in the composition of certain chemical components during processing
of hatahata-zushi, a Japanese fermented product of sandfish and boiled
rice, were investigated. The pH, and moisture and salt contents of the
finished product were 4.1, and 552 and 41.0 g kg---1, respectively, on
a salt-free dry wt. basis. Concn. of polyamines except histamine increased
gradually during fermentation. Contents of free amino acid, especially
glutamic acid, alanine, valine, and leucine, increased during fermentation.
Lactic acid and acetic acid contents increased markedly during fermentation.
Total lipid content of the raw sample was relatively high (385 g kg---1
dry wt. basis). During soaking in water, content of phosphatidylethanolamine
(PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) markedly decreased, while that of free
fatty acids increased. The decreases in PE and PC continued up to the
end of fermentation. The triglyceride content decreased to a large extent
during the early stages of fermentation and remained almost unchanged
thereafter. Lipid deterioration of hatahata-zushi seemed to be due mainly
to hydrolysis of lipids by endogeneous and/or exogenous lipolytic enzyme
Record 67 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: The study on kinds and utilities of jeot-kal (fermented fish products).
AU: Do-Soon-Deuk; Lee-Young-Mee; Chang-Hak-Gil
SO: Journal-of-Korean-Society-of-Food-Science; 9 (3) 222-229, 12 ref.
AB: Differences in consumption and use of jeot-kal, a fermented sea food
product, in 3 temp. zones of Korea were investigated. 95 different kinds
of jeot-kal were found, which were divided into 5 groups as follows: whole
fish (46 var.), viscera (11 var.), shellfish (14 var.), molluscs (4 var.),and
crustaceans (20 var.). 17 kinds of jeot-kal were found in all regions.
Jeot-kal were consumed as side dishes, seasoning instead of soy sauce
or vinegar, or as components of a kimchi dish. In kimchi dishes, 49 kinds
of jeot-kal were used; myeolchi jeot (self-fermented anchovies) was predominant
in the southern area, while saewoo jeot (self-fermented shrimps), gonjenji
jeot (self-fermented mysis) and hwangsegi jeot (self-fermented hwangandali)
were predominant in the northern and middle areas. The salt content and
pH of jeot-kal from the southern area were higher than in any other area.
[From En summ.]
Record 68 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Sensory evaluation of fish sauces.
AU: Sanceda-NG; Sanceda-MF; Encanto-VS; Kurata-T; Arakawa-N
SO: Food-Quality-and-Preference; 5 (3) 179-184, 16 ref.
AB: Sensory analysis of anaerobically and aerobically fermented commercial
fish sauces was carried out. Results of evaluation by 2 groups of Filipinos
(A and B) and 1 group of Japanese (D) revealed a difference in the aroma
and flavour of the fish sauces. However, after several exposures, the
difference in aroma became significantly smaller, but flavour remained
almost unchanged. Groups A and B (familiar with aerobically fermented
fish sauce) preferred the aroma of the aerobic over that of the anaerobic
sauce but accepted the flavour of the anaerobic sauce. Group D, who had
never known or heard of either of the sauces, had a reverse reaction and
preferred the anaerobic over that of the aerobic sauce. Group C (Filipino
children) did not like the sauces. In general, fermentation under anaerobic
conditions brought changes in the aroma quality of fish sauce during the
manufacturing process, to yield an acceptable product.
Record 69 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Production of fish sauce and acceleration of sauce fermentation using
AU: Ravipim-Chaveesuk; Smith-JP; Simpson-BK
SO: Journal-of-Aquatic-Food-Product-Technology; 2 (3) 59-77, 21 ref.
AB: The effect of addition of trypsin and chymotrypsin (0.3%, w/w) at
various proportions (100:0, 50:50, and 0:100) on acceleration of fish
sauce fermentation using herring as raw material [was investigated]. Results
showed that supplementation with trypsin and chymotrypsin significantly
increased protein hydrolysis (P less than 0.05). Fish sauces prepared
from herring with enzyme supplementation contained significantly more
total N, soluble protein, free amino acids and total amino acids compared
to fish sauce with no added enzyme (P less than 0.05). Supplementation
with trypsin and/or chymotrypsin mixture produced the most favourable
results in terms of protein hydrolysis; there was no difference among
enzyme treated sauces in terms of free amino acid composition. [Except
for] amino acid profile, accelerated fermented fish sauce product had
similar chemical and microbiological composition to Nampla, a first grade
commercially produced Thai fish sauce. Sensory analysis of products for
colour, flavour and aroma indicated that panellists preferred the lighter
coloured fish sauce prepared with enzyme supplementation compared to the
darker coloured commercially produced Nampla. However, there was no significant
preference (P less than 0.05) for aroma and flavour of the enzyme supplemented
sauce or Nampla. Results of this study indicate that acceptable fish sauce
can be produced from herring; addition of enzymes has the potential to
reduce fermentation time to approx. 2 months without compromising product
Record 70 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: [Influence of technological factors on autohydrolysis in fish.]
AU: Chan-Tkhi-Zung; K''sev-D
SO: Khranitelna-Promishlenost; 42 (5/6) 38-40, 8 ref.
AB: Effects of temp. (22 or 37 degree C) and salt (20, 25 or 35% NaCl)
on autohydrolysis in fish (sardine (Sardinia pilchardus) and scad (Trachurus
spp.)) were studied with the aim of intensifying the process for manufacture
of fermented fish sauces. Various parameters including N fractions, pH,
DM, sensory quality and degree of hydrolysis were determined on days 180
and 360 of fermentation. Differences in these parameters for scad and
sardine sauces prepared using the different salt and temp. regimes are
discussed. Fish sauce prepared with 20% NaCl had the highest content of
amino and total N; other parameters were not markedly affected by NaCl
content. Fermentation at the higher temp. reduced the fermentation period
to 5-6 months; fish fermented at 22 degree C still had an after taste
after 6 months. Sardine sauces were regarded as having a more pleasant
odour than scad sauces.
Record 71 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Effects of processing and storage on some chemical characteristics
and lipid composition of a Ghanaian fermented fish product.
AU: Yankah-VV; Ohshima-T; Koizumi-C
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 63 (2) 227-235, 27
AB: Momoni is a Ghanaian fermented fish product used as a condiment for
flavouring soups and stews and also as the main protein in a meal. Effects
of traditional processing methods on composition of the lipids, free amino
acids and organic acids of momoni made using Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus
japonicus) were investigated. Moisture content decreased from 751 to 505
g kg---1 after fermentation for 3 days, and then remained almost constant
during storage. Changes in pH were minimal, although a gradual decrease
was observed from 6.2 to 5.9 after 2 months of storage. Salt accumulation
due to salting increased up to 325 g kg---1 but remained almost unchanged
during storage. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) increased to 0.8 g kg---1
on a salt-free DM basis, after 2 months storage. Most free amino acids,
except histidine, which was present in the highest concn. in the samples,
increased during processing and subsequent storage. However, no detectable
amount of histamine was formed after 2 months of storage. Lactic acid,
the most prominent organic acid (3.12 g kg---1 salt-free DM) in the raw
materials, decreased during processing and storage. Diphosphatidylglycerol,
free fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine increased. Processing resulted
in depletion of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol
with decreases in triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine
and phosphatidylcholine. Proportion of the extracted total lipids present
as polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased; this was accompanied by increases
in the proportions of saturated fatty acids, indicating a high degree
of oxidation. Peroxide value and TBA value increased on fermentation,
confirming the observed oxidation, but decreased during storage. Although
oxidation was extensive, following hygienic and good manufacturing practices,
this method could prevent spoilage taking place in fish if good-quality
raw materials are used. [From En summ.]
Record 72 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Staphylococcus piscifermentans sp. nov., from fermented fish in Thailand.
AU: Tanasupawat-S; Hashimoto-Y; Ezaki-T; Kozaki-M; Komagata-K
SO: International-Journal-of-Systematic-Bacteriology; 42 (4) 577-581,
AB: New coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from fermented
fish in Thailand. These organisms were differentiated from other Staphylococcus
species on the basis of DNA relatedness and biochemical characteristics.
S. piscifermentans sp. nov. is described [phenotype characteristics, cellular
fatty acid composition, quinone systems, cell wall peptidoglycan and lactic
acid isomer synthesis], and the type strain is strain SK03 (= NRIC 1817
= JCM 6057 = TISTR 824).
Record 73 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Fermented fish in Africa. A study on processing, marketing and consumption.
SO: FAO-Fisheries-Technical-Paper; No. 329, vi + 80pp., many ref.
AB: This technical paper is based on surveys carried out in Burundi, Chad,
Ivory Coast, the Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, the Sudan and Uganda to
identify the various types of fermented fish products, their processing
characteristics and economic importance. Aspects covered include: literature
review of the fermentation process and quality/marketing aspects; fish
processing characteristics (including fish sources, traditional methods
of fermentation, fermentation tanks and driers, fish quality and safety,
packaging); socio-economic evaluation of fermented fish; distribution
and marketing; consumer attitudes to fishery products; and current areas
of research. Sanitary conditions of fermented fish production were generally
found to be poor and processing methods were not standardized. In the
light of the observations made, recommendations are suggested to improve
quality in order to enhance intra-regional trade in fish products.
Record 74 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: The zinc, calcium, copper, manganese, nonstarch polysaccharide and
phytate content of seventy-eight locally grown and prepared African foods.
AU: Ferguson-EL; Gibson-RS; Opare-Obisaw-C; Osei-Opare-F; Stephen-AM;
SO: Journal-of-Food-Composition-and-Analysis; 6 (1) 87-99, many ref.
AB: Minerals, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and phytate contents of
locally grown and prepared African foods were determined. Foods studied
included: fish (anchovy, mackerel, tuna, tilapia); meat; vegetables (amaranth
leaves, cassava, okra, cocoyam, beans, plantains, peppers, sweet pototoes);
cereals (cornflour, sorghum, rice, corn grits, corn dough, wheat flour
dough); nuts (peanuts); and prepared foods (smoked fish, fermented kapok
seeds, porridge, palmnut soup, stews). Legumes, meat, fresh fish and smoked
fish contained highest levels of minerals. Peanuts and bean-cakes had
highest levels of NSP, while legumes and cereals (especially unfermented
or unrefined cereals) contained highest phytate levels. Variability in
Zn and Ca contents of similar soups and stews was due to differences in
proportions of ingredients used in preparation. Addition of peanuts, fermented
locust bean seeds and fermented kapok seeds increased minerals content
of soups and stews. It was suggested that fermentation of foods be promoted
to maximize hydrolysis of phytic acid in cereal products, staple foods
in African countries.
Record 75 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: [Survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in protein rich seasonings.]
Studien zum Ueberleben von Yersinia enterocolitica in prteinreichen Wuerzmitteln.
AU: Toan-PV; Beutling-D
SO: Archiv-fuer-Lebensmittelhygiene; 44 (1) 13-19, many ref.
AB: Samples of 6 types of protein-rich seasoning sauces from Asia (including
fermented fish sauces and soy sauce) and 2 from Germany (wheat based sauce)
containing 14-30% NaCl were inoculated with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype
0:3 or 0:9 at approx. 10-7 cfu/ml. Seasonings were stored at 4, 15, 22
and 30 degree C and examined for survival of Y. enterocolitica during
storage for _21 days. Y. enterocolitica was unable to multiply in the
investigated seasonings and survival ability decreased with increasing
storage temp. Yersinia was reisolated from samples stored at 4 degree
C after 12 days but was only detectable in samples stored at 30 degree
C for less than 48 h.
Record 76 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Characterization of proteases produced by newly isolated and identified
proteolytic microorganisms from fermented fish (Budu).
AU: Choorit-W; Prasertsan-P
SO: World-Journal-of-Microbiology-&-Biotechnology; 8 (3) 284-286,
AB: Eight different strains of Bacillus were isolated from fermented fish
(budu) and their proteolytic enzyme activites were determined after 18
h cultivation at 35 degree C. 4 isolates possessed high proteinase activities.
Optimum pH for these enzymes was 7.0-8.0 and optimal temp. was 55 degree
C. Proteinases retained 40% of original activity after 20 min at 55 degree
C but lost all activity at 65 degree C. 3 of the 4 isolates were identified
as Bacillus subtilis, the fourth as Bacillus licheniformis.
Record 77 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Oxygen effect on volatile acids formation during fermentation in manufacture
of fish sauce.
AU: Sanceda-NG; Kurata-T; Suzuki-Y; Arakawa-N
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 57 (5) 1120-1122, 1135, 18 ref.
AB: [Effects of O2 on volatile fatty acids formation during fish sauce
fermentation were investigated.] Volatile acids of aerobically and anaerobically
fermented fish sauces were investigated using GC and GC-MS. There was
no significant difference in pH values of the 2 types of sauces. Aerobically
fermented sauce had significantly higher concn. of volatile acids than
the anaerobically fermented one. Sensory evaluation revealed that the
aroma of anaerobically fermented sauce was a little sweet, less acidic
and less rancid than aerobically made sauce which was sharp and cheesy.
Thus, fermentation under anaerobic conditions altered aroma quality of
the sauce during manufacturing, yielding an acceptable product.
Record 78 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Lactic acid bacteria in a fermented fishery product, 'burong bangus'.
AU: Olympia-M; Ono-H; Shinmyo-A; Takano-M
SO: Journal-of-Fermentation-and-Bioengineering; 73 (3) 193-197, 17 ref.
AB: Analyses of the microflora of burong bangus, a traditional fermented
fish [Chanos chanos] and rice product of the Philippines, revealed that
a sequential type of fermentation with overlapping growth takes place.
Streptococcus initiated the fermentation process and generally persisted
up to the latter part of the fermentation. Pediococcus appeared next,
but comprised only a small % of the microflora. Both Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus
appeared on the 3rd day and were generally present up to the end of the
fermentation, with Lactobacillus predominating among the microflora in
the final days. In the course of characterizing the lactic acid bacteria
involved in the fermenting rice-fish mixture, some isolates were found
to be capable of hydrolysing starch. These were revealed to be Gram-positive,
rod-shaped and catalase negative. Tentative identification of one of the
isolates, L137, showed that this strain possesses very similar characteristics
to those of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp.
coryniformis. The % G + C of L137 was 45.2 while those of L. plantarum
and L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis are 45.1 and 45.0, resp. However,
L137 differs from the other 2 in its ability to utilize starch.
Record 79 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Chemical components of fermented fish products.
AU: Mizutani-T; Kimizuka-A; Ruddle-K; Ishige-N
SO: Journal-of-Food-Composition-and-Analysis; 5 (2) 152-159, 11 ref.
AB: Fermented fish sauces, made by pickling fish and small shrimps with
salt and fermenting for several months, have a long history of use in
Southeast Asia, where they constitute major side dishes and condiments
in many cuisines. Chemical components of 47 fish sauces (classified into
7 groups, namely fish sauce, shrimp paste, shrimp sauce, fish paste, fish
shiokara, shrimp shiokara, and narezushi) collected from 11 Asian countries
were analysed and compared with published data for that of fermented plant
materials. Components found in fish sauce and shrimp paste were similar
to those found in soy sauce and soybean paste. Fish products contained
no sour or sweet substances in contrast to the soy products; however,
both products were salty and contained amino acids. No major differences
were found in the umami (good tasting) amino acids which were found among
the fish sauces. Glutamic acid, closely related to umami substances, was
found to be a relatively stable amino acid which did not suffer from any
secondary decomposition during fermentation.
Record 80 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Utilization of tropical foods: animal products.
CA: Food & Agriculture Organization
SO: viii + 49pp. ISBN 92-5-102878
AB: This book on utilization of tropical animal foods is No. 47/8 in the
series of FAO Food and Nutrition Papers. It is intended for training and
reference purposes. The book consists of the following chapters: Animal
products, including information on animal products in tropical diets,
wild and domesticated animals as meat sources and processing and preservation
of animal foods in the tropics (pp. 1-14); Meat (preservation by smoking,
curing, drying and fermentation) (pp. 15-20); Fish (use in tropical diets,
preservation, traditional processing in W. Africa, fermentation, production
of fish sauces and pastes, fermented fish pastes in SE Asia, fermented
fish pieces and whole fish products) (pp. 21-40); and Milk products (role
in tropical diets, preparation of cheese, production of butter and buttermilk,
evaporated milk products) (pp. 41-46). A 1p. index of scientific names
Record 81 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Mince from low-cost fish species.
SO: Trends-in-Food-Science-&-Technology; 3 (1) 2-5, 42 ref.
AB: Fish, which provide a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids,
are becoming increasingly popular in the human diet, and there is a need
for new approaches to meeting the growing demand for fish products. Development
of value-added products such as protein hydrolysates and surimi-based,
extrusion-cooked and fermented fish products from mince recovered from
the mechanical deboning of low-cost fish species is discussed. It is concluded
that commercialization of new products depends on availability and cost
of raw material, optimization of process parameters, and quality control
and storage stability of the final products. [From En summ.]
Record 82 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Biogenic amines in cheese and other fermented foods: a review.
AU: Stratton-JE; Hutkins-RW; TaylorSL
SO: Journal-of-Food-Protection; 54 (6) 460-470, 101 ref.
AB: Biogenic amines (particularly histamine) in foods are reviewed under
the following headings: Clinical aspects and toxicology (symptomology,
constraints to surveillance, histamine metabolism toxicity and role of
potentiators, putrefactive amines, pharmaceutical agents); Fermented foods
containing histamine (cheese, formation of other biogenic amines in cheese,
fermented beverages, fermented dry sausage, fermented vegetables, miso,
soy sauce and related foods, fermented fish products); Formation of histamine
and its control (histidine decarboxylase, histamine-producing bacteria,
control of histamine formation); Analysis of histamine (AOAC procedure,
rapid methods, detn. of histamine-producing bacteria); and Histamine regulation.
Record 83 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Food applications of sorbic acid and its salts.
SO: Food-Additives-and-Contaminants; 7 (5) 711-715, 3 ref.
AB: A general survey of the numerous uses of sorbic acid in the food sector
is given [covering fat emulsions, cheese, meat and fish, fermented and
pickled vegetables, tomato products, semi-dried fruit, fruit juices and
fruit syrups, fruit preserves, drinks, bakery goods and sugar confectionery].
Some fields of application are discussed that are either unimportant or
not permitted in the UK. Because of their physiological inertness, their
effectiveness even in the weakly acid pH range and their neutral taste,
sorbic acid and its salts (the most commonly used products are sorbic
acid itself (E200) and potassium sorbate (E202)) and have become leading
preservatives in the food sector throughout the world over the past 30
yr. In many countries sodium sorbate (E201) and calcium sorbate (E203)
are also permitted. Sorbic acid is sparingly soluble in water, sodium
sorbate has better solubility, and potassium sorbate is very freely soluble
and can be used to produce 50% stock solutions [which remain stable for
some time]. Sodium sorbate in solid forms is unstable and very rapidly
undergoes oxidation in exposure to atmospheric O2, and is therefore not
produced on industrial scale. Calcium sorbate is used in the manufacture
of fungistatic wrapper because it is highly stable to oxidation, but this
use is very limited. Sorbic acid and sorbates can be directly added into
the product. Products can be dipped or sprayed with aqueous solutions
of sorbates. Dusting of food with dry sorbic acid is also possible but
less recommended because sorbic acid irritates the skin and mucous membranes.
Record 84 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: [Occurence of Listeria monocytogenes in imported smoked and fermented
fish.] Zum Vorkommen von Listeria monocytogenes in importierten geraeucherten
und fermentierten Fischen.
SO: Archiv-fuer-Lebensmittelhygiene; 41 (5) 107-109, many ref.
AB: Samples (496) of hot-smoked fish (eel, cod, trout, herring, mackerel,
Schillerlocken and sprats), 324 of cold-smoked fish (halibut, haddock,
salmon) and 89 of fermented fish (gravad salmon, marinated herring) were
examined for the presence of L. monocytogenes. It was detected in 111
(12.2%) of all samples, in 44 (8.9%) hot-smoked, 44 (13.6%) cold-smoked
and 23 (25.8%) fermented fish samples. Serotype 1/2b was found in 65 (58.6%),
1/2a in 22 (19.8%) and 4b in 16 (14.4%) samples. The most highly contaminated
fish sp. were hot-smoked trout and herrings (Brickling), cold-smoked halibut
and salmon and both types of marinated fish.
Record 85 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: [Characteristics of saba-narezushi mackerel and pickles produced in
the Wakasa region of Fukui prefecture. Chemical changes in the fermentation
medium and mackerel meat during fermentation and the production of volatile
AU: Kariya-Y; Kiuchi-R; Mikami-N; Doishita-H; Kodama-K
43 (1) 43-48, 7 ref.
AB: Saba-narezushi (mackerel and pickles), a fermented fish product from
the Wakasa bay area of Fukui prefecture, was prepared in the laboratory
using desalted heshiko (salted mackerel cured with rice bran), koji (rice
malt) and boiled rice according to the traditional process, and analysed
for its contents of reducing sugar, organic acids, amino acids, alcohols
and esters. After fermentation, reducing sugar accounted for about 4.2%
by wt. of the fermentation medium, organic acids for about 1%, and amino
acids about 0.95%. Lactic acid and citric acid were found as the major
acids and acetic acid as a minor volatile acid. Major volatile compounds
found by GC in the fermentation medium were ethanol and ethyl acetate.
Record 86 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: [Rakfisk - staphylococcal food poisoning.]
AU: Ewald-S; Melhuus-B
SO: Norsk-Veterinaertidsskrift; 101 (2) 127
AB: A severe case of food poisoning after consumption of 'rakfisk' (a
fermented fish product) is reported. No food poisoning bacteria were detected
in the fish; however, examination by ELISA revealed the presence of relatively
high levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin types B and D.
Record 87 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Overall quality and sensory acceptance of a lysine-fortified fish
AU: Sanceda-NG; Kurata-T; Arakawa-N
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 55 (4) 983-988, 48 ref.
AB: The feasibility of making [fermented] fish sauce with added lysine
was studied. A difference was found in quality of the volatile compounds
detected from the control and from the lysine-added samples. High concn.
of lysine did not significantly affect acceptability due to aroma but
reduced acceptability of flavour and colour, as assessed by 20 panelists
using 5-point hedonic scales. Addition of lysine could feasibly increase
protein level of fish sauce. Sensory evaluation in terms of overall quality
showed that addition of up to 2.0% lysine was quite acceptable.
Record 88 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: The influence of oxygen accessibility on the growth of yeast in fish/rice
AU: Avhurhi-JB; Owens-JD
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 27 (2) 104-106, 15
AB: Fish (mackerel)/rice mixture (1:3.6) was prepared and fermented between
12 and 21 days using 1 and 5% fermented fish/rice inoculum levels under
3 methods of air exclusion, viz. layering with paraffin oil (PO), paraffin
wax (PW) and fermentation lock alone (control). Yeast growth was recorded
under all experimental conditions. No growth was recorded by the 12th
day in the control. There was no significant difference in yeast counts
between PO, PW and control. Yeasty flavour developed in bottles exposed
to air, while the characteristic acid aroma was exhibited by other systems.
Record 89 of 147 in FSTA Current 1990-2002/11
TI: Chemical and amino acid composition of four traditional foods consumed
in the Arab Gulf states.
AU: Musaiger-AO; Al-Mohizea-IS; Al-Kanhal-MA; Jaidah-JH
SO: Food-Chemistry; 36 (3) 181-189, 18 ref.
AB: The following 4 foods commonly consumed in the Arabian Gulf states
were analysed for proximate composition (moisture, protein, crude fat,
crude fibre, ash, carbohydrates, energy), minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe,
Cu, Zn, P, Mn) and amino acids: khubez-tamer (date bread); khubez-jebin
(cheese bread); tareeh (conc. fermented fish sauce); mehiawah (fermented
fish sauce). Preparation methods for the 4 foods are outlined; both sauces
are prepared from Indian oil sardine with the addition of spices. Results
of the analyses are tabulated. They included the following. Tareeh contained
more protein, ash, Ca, Na, Mg, P and Zn than mehiawah but less moisture,
fat, carbohydrate, Fe and K. Cheese bread contained more protein, fat,
ash, Ca, P and Na than date bread but less Fe, K, Mg, Cu and Zn. The amino
acid profiles of the fish sauces were superior to those of the breads.
Particular attention is drawn to the high Na contents of the fish sauces.
Record 90 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Traditional fermented fish products with special reference to Thai
PY: 1987, recd. 1988
SO: ASEAN-Food-Journal; 3 (1) 3-10, 24 ref.
AB: Types of fermented fish products available in Thailand and their processing
procedures are outlined. Information is provided on chemical composition
and microbiological properties of fermented fish. Tables list fermented
fish and products, their production time, fish/salt/carbohydrate ratios,
uses and local names in several countries. Some chemical properties of
the fermented fish and microorganisms commonly found in them are also
Record 91 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Composition and digestibility of fermented fish foods of Manipur.
AU: Sarojnalini-C; Vishwanath-Singh-W
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 25 (6) 349-351, 15
AB: The chemical composition, total bacterial counts and digestibility
of (i) Hentak and (ii) Ngari, 2 fermented fish foods consumed in Manipur,
were determined. The compositions of (i) and (ii) were, resp.: cholesterol,
2.67 and 8.37 mg/g; Ca, 12.60 and 6.88 mg/g; Fe, 1.29 and 0.51 mg/g; and
total viable bacterial counts, 4.8 x 10-8 and 5.0 x 10-7 cells/g. Pepsin
action for 2 h followed by trypsin action for 20 h in vitro digested 71.89
and 82.28% of total protein, liberating 5 and 4 essential amino acids,
resp. (i) appears to be a better food in view of its higher Ca, Fe, essential
amino acids, lipids and lower cholesterol content.
Record 92 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Changes in the total oxalate content in the fermentation of fish paste
AU: Vishwanath-W; Sarojnalini-C
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 54 (3) 754-755, 8 ref.
AB: [Fresh petioles of Alocasia macrorrhiza are used in preparation of
hentak, a fermented fish paste. The plant is unsuitable for human consumption,
as it contains calcium oxalate crystals, which cause irritation, but which
seem to be destroyed on fermentation.] Total oxalate content of sliced
petioles of A. macrorrhiza was reduced by 41.3% on incubation for 7 days
at room temp. (18-23 degree C). When incubated after mixing with an equal
wt. of powdered sundried fish (Esomus danricus), for preparation of hentak,
oxalate level was reduced by 84.4%. This loss was greatly inhibited by
antibiotics. Some specific microorganisms [notably fungi] might be important
in oxalate destruction.
Record 93 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Changes in some chemical characteristics and lipid composition of
salted fermented bouri fish muscle (Mugil cephalus).
AU: El-Sebaiy-LA; Metwalli-SM
SO: Food-Chemistry; 31 (1) 41-50, 22 ref.
AB: Small (mean wt. 107.0 g) and large (mean wt. 220.8 g) fresh bouri
fish were salted-fermented under non-aerobic conditions for approx. 1
month at room temp. Fresh and salted-fermented fish were then filleted,
minced and analysed for chemical composition, particularly lipid composition.
Results are tabulated and included the following. Contents of moisture,
crude protein, lipid and phospholipid P decreased during salting-fermenting,
while contents of NaCl, ash and free fatty acids and the peroxide value
increased. Fresh small and large fish contained, resp., 12.60 and 7.50%
fat; corresponding figures for salted-fermented fish were 11.20 and 6.30%.
Studies of the lipid classes indicated that contents of phospholipids,
monoglycerides, triglycerides and hydrocarbons decreased during salting-fermenting,
particularly in large fish, while the diglyceride content increased. Studies
of fatty acid composition revealed that the ratio between unsaturated
and saturated fatty acids decreased during salting-fermenting.
Record 94 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Bacterial flora of fermented fish sauce prepared from sardines in
AU: Zuberi-R; Shamshad-SI; Qadri-RB
SO: Tropical-Science; 28 (4) 239-246, 23 ref.
AB: Samples of fish sauce were prepared from sardines layered with salt
and stored for fermentation at ambient temp. in barrels. Samples were
prepared on (i) small and (ii) large scales and examined after (i) 6 and
18, and (ii) 3 and 6 months. A sample of 3-month old (i) was also examined
after a further 3 months fermentation in the presence of 10% tartaric
acid. Samples were examined for residual aerobic bacterial flora. Results
indicate that bacilli predominated, followed by micrococci. The dominant
bacillus was Bacillus megaterium, followed by B. licheniformis, B. pumilus
and B. cereus. Salt tolerance of Bacillus spp. was not constant, but varied
(0-15% NaCl requirement) among different strains of the same spp.
Record 95 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Technical aspects of processed marine foods. Packaging (of e.g. fish
sausage, kamaboko, dried and fermented fish strips).]
SO: Food-Industry-[Shokuhin-Kogyo]; 30 (8) 30-38, 18 ref.
Record 96 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Hygiene of `rakorret' fermented fish.]
SO: Norsk-Veterinaertidsskrift; 98 (2) 121-125, 20 ref.
AB: Preparation and characteristics of rakorret are described, with reference
to use of dry-salting and brining processes. Lactic acid bacteria predominate
in the fermented fish; Staphylococcus epidermidis also occurs in the brine.
pH of the fermented product is approx. 6.5. The botulism hazard is considered,
with special reference to the role of fermentation temp. and NaCl concn.
in prevention of growth and toxin formation by Cl. botulinium. Toxin formation
was observed at 4 degree C/0-2% NaCl, 10 degree C/0-4% NaCl and 21 degree
Record 97 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Studies on the processing of low salt fermented sea foods. VI. Taste
compounds of low salt fermented anchovy and yellow corvenia.]
AU: Cha-YJ; Lee-EH
SO: Bulletin-of-the-Korean-Fisheries-Society; 18 (4) 325-332, 16 ref.
AB: The major amino acids in fermented anchovy after 60 days fermentation
were lysine, alanine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, histidine, threonine
and glycine, while those in fermented yellow corvenia after 90 days fermentation
were lysine, leucine, alanine, valine threonine, isoleucine, glutamic
acid and methionine. These amino acids comprised 57% of the total extractive
N content for fermented anchovy and 41% for fermented yellow corvenia,
resp. The results indicated that principal taste compounds for both products
were free amino acids, and that nucleotides and their related compounds
as well as total creatinine also played a role. There was little difference
between taste compounds of low salt fermented fish and those of conventional
fermented fish irrespective of fish sp. [See FSTA (1985) 17 4R82 for part
Record 98 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Fermentation parameters involved in the production of lactic acid
preserved fish-glucose substrates.
AU: Adams-MR; Cooke-RD; Twiddy-DR
SO: International-Journal-of-Food-Science-&-Technology; 22 (2) 105-114,
AB: Lactic fermented fish products are common in S. E. Asia. The composition
and quality of the products vary considerably, since they are usually
produced on a small scale and the fermentation of the fish-salt-carbohydrate
mixtures depends on the natural microflora. A minced fish-salt-glucose
system was used to evaluate the factors that favour a rapid lactic fermentation.
Studies with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus indicated
that fermentation rates increased in the range 0-5% w/w of glucose or
sucrose, whereas increasing the salt concn. from, 0 to 6% slowed the rate
of pH decrease. 1% salt and 4% glucose were used for subsequent studies.
The nature of the gas atm during incubation had little effect on fermentation
rate, and chemical modification of the initial substrate pH with lactic,
acetic or citric acid did not assist lactic fermentation. Incubation temp.
of 15, 24, 30 and 37 degree C were evaluated: the lactic acid bacterial
count rarely exceeded the total spoiler count by greater than 10x during
the first 2 days (although it subsequently increased). Consequently reduction
of the pH to less than 4.5 within the first 2 days was difficult to achieve.
The use of cooked fish minces gave only slight changes in the fermentation
Record 99 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Use of non-European fermented foods in the Austrian market.] Nutzung
aussereuropaeischer, fermentierter Lebensmittel fuer heimische Zwecke.
SO: Ernaehrung-; 11 (1) 14-22, 45 ref.
AB: This review-type article discusses the advantages and disadvantages
of fermented foods (extended shelf-life, effects on nutritional value)
and generally divides all fermented foods into 7 groups i.e. alcoholic
beverages, vinegar, fermented milk and dairy products combined with plant
materials, fermented vegetables (e.g. kimchi), fermented fish and meat
products, fermented plant foods, and foods fermented by inherent enzymes
(e.g. malt, sprouted seeds). The traditional kishk production technique
was modified into a large scale process, producing an extruded kishk snack.
Adaptation of tempeh production to domestic conditions is described, the
raw material being Austrian field beans (instead of the traditional soybeans).
The tempeh produced was preferred to soybean tempeh in trials. However,
as the product is consumed fresh (traditionally within 24 h) and has low
shelf-life further trials are currently in progress to make a storage-stable
tempeh, e.g. using sterilization, or to use tempeh as a food flavour enhancer.
Record 100 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Novel products from underutilized fish using combined processing technology.
AU: Karmas-E; Lauber-E
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 52 (1) 7-9, 13 ref.
AB: Mincing or surimi-processing, followed by fermentation, extrusion
and intermediate moisture food (IMF) processing were combined to investigate
new ways to create fish protein based snack foods. A dough of fermented
fish (minced or surimi), wheat flour, corn starch, and water was extruded
and subsequently dried, resulting in an IMF product at pH 5.2, aw 0.90
and moisture about 30%. The products had a chewy texture, were shelf-stable
and could be processed into flavoured, high-protein snack foods.
Record 101 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Testing a solar dome fish dryer in the Gambia.
AU: Curran-CA; N'jai-AE; Nerquaye-Tetteh-G; Diouf-N
SO: FAO-Fisheries-Report; No. 329 (Suppl.), 173-184, 23 ref.
AB: In an attempt to improve processing and reduce blow-fly infestation,
a 1-ton prototype solar dome dryer was constructed and tested. Several
drying trials were carried out using 5 different fish spp. Performance
of the dryer was compared with sun drying on traditional, flat chicken
wire and sloping chicken wire racks. The solar dome did not perform as
well as expected. Very similar drying rates were obtained for sun and
solar dome drying. The poor performance was attributed to the nature of
the raw material (i.e. fermented fish) used to prepare guedja (the local
dried product), and the weather. Blow-fly infestation was a problem if
sufficient care was not taken to prevent entry of flies into the dryer.
Low initial temp. had to be used in the dome to avoid cooking the fragile
raw material, so that improved drying rates could not be achieved. These
temp. were too low to kill either the adult blow-flies or larvae. [See
FSTA (1987) 19 2R5.]
Record 102 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Yeast flora in red burong isda, a fermented fish food in the Philippines.
AU: Sakai-H; Caldo-GA; Kozaki-M
28 (2) 181-185, 5 ref.
AB: The role of yeasts in determining the flavour and quality of burong
isda, a fermented fish food [see preceding abstr.] was investigated by
isolation from samples of red burong isda made with 5 different fish spp.
Viable yeast counts were 10-6-10-8/g and culture yielded 484 isolates
which were divided into 24 groups on the basis of physiological and morphological
characters. Dominant yeasts in all isolates were Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Torulopsis mogii, Pichia vini and
P. strasburgensis. T. mogii and P. vini were found only in burong made
with Tilapia nilotica, probably due to the higher salt content of this
burong (5.4% vs. 1.8-2.1% for other samples). It is concluded that the
yeast flora arises due to chance contamination and that the variations
are responsible for differences in flavour from product to product.
Record 103 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: The fermented fish food, burong isda, in the Philippines.
AU: Sakai-H; Caldo-GA; Kozaki-M
28 (1) 138-144, 2 ref.
AB: Burong isda is a fermented fish/rice mixture prepared in the Central
Luzon region of the Philippines, using several different fish spp. Major
types of burong isda are red and white; the former is made with rice coloured
by angkak, i.e. rice fermented with red mould, Monascus purpureus. Cleaned
fish are salted for 3-6 h, mixed with cooked rice and fermented in jars
for 1-2 wk. Chemical and microbiological analyses of several burong isda
samples are reported. pH of all samples was 3.0-4.5, NaCl content varied
between methods of manufacture. Counts of acid-forming bacteria were 10-7-10-9/g,
and yeasts 10-6-10-8/g.
Record 104 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Fermented fish products in Scandinavia.]
SO: Korean-Journal-of-Applied-Microbiology-and-Bioengineering; 11 (4)
347-351, 17 ref.
AB: Preservation of fish by fermentation has a long tradition in Scandinavia.
Today, however, fermentation is applied only because of the specific and
unique organoleptic qualities induced by this process. The final products
are highly priced delicacies, often with a small and geographically very
limited market. 2 types of fermented fish products, 'gravad fisk' and
'kryddersild', are widely accepted in all Scandinavia. Both products are
manufactured industrially using fatty fish as raw material and by adding
salt, sugar and spices to either the fillet or the whole (uneviscerated)
fish. The products vary greatly in salt content, 'gravad fish' having
a rather low (9% NaCl) and 'kryddersild' a higher content (around 21%
NaCl) in the water phase during maturation. Manufacture, maturation, storage
life, spoilage and possible health hazards of the 2 products are discussed
and some future prospects for fish fermentation are briefly considered.
Record 105 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Microbiology of fermented foods. Vol. 2.
AU: Wood-BJB [Editor]
SO: xx + 306pp. ISBN 0-85334-333-0, many ref.
AB: This publication is the 2nd of the series [see preceding abstr. for
volume 1] and includes the following chapters on food fermentation, largely
in developing countries. Fermented fish and fish products, by Beddows,
C. G. (pp. 1-39, many ref.). Fermented sausages, by Luecke, F. K. (pp.
41-83, many ref.). Tea, coffee and cocoa, by Carr, J. G. (pp. 133-154,
39 ref.). African fermented foods, by Odunfa, S. A. (pp. 155-191, 90 ref.).
Food fermentation in the tropics, by Stanton, W. R. (pp. 193-211, 15 ref.).
Miscellaneous food-related fermentations, by Wood, B. J. B. (pp. 213-235,
27 ref.). Koji, by Lotong, N. (pp. 237-270, 122 ref.). Strain selection
and improvement, by Johnston, J. R. (pp. 271-292, 93 ref.). A 14-pp. subject
index to both volumes is included.
Record 106 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Fermented fish products of south east Asia.
AU: Adams-MR; Cooke-RD; Rattagool-P
SO: Tropical-Science; 25 (1) 61-73, 24 ref.
AB: 2 categories of lactic fermented fish product are discussed in production,
nutritional and economic terms, i.e. products preserved by water activity
reduction (fish/salt formulations) and those preserved by a combination
of water activity reduction and lactic acid generation (fish/salt/carbohydrate
formulations) with emphasis on the latter. Products from Thailand considered
are: pla-ra, pla-jao, pla-som, pla-jom, som-fak and pla-paeng-daeng; those
from the Philippines are burong-isda and balao-balao.
Record 107 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Practicability of preservation of the fish Curimatus elegans by fermentation.]
AU: Sanchez-L; Lima-U-de-A
SO: Ciencia-e-Tecnologia-de-Alimentos; 4 (1) 56-67, 18 ref.
AB: Samples of fresh Curimatus elegans (wt. 20-30 g/fish) were used in
trials on manufacture of a fermented fish product. Fish were not eviscerated
before fermentation. NaCl concn. of 20-40% were used; in some cases, the
brine was changed during fermentation. Fermentation was conducted at ambient
temp. (14-27 degree C) for 50-221 days. Composition (moisture, ether extract,
ash, N x 6.25, NaCl), pH and sensory quality (appearance, colour, odour,
texture) were evaluated; tables of results are given. The results show
that production of a fermented product with good sensory quality is possible.
A NaCl level of P30 is necessary. Protein was lost from the fish into
the brine during fermentation.
Record 108 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Pediococcus species and related bacteria found in fermented foods
and related materials in Thailand.
AU: Tanasupawat-S; Daengsubha-W
SO: Journal-of-General-and-Applied-Microbiology; 29 (6) 487-506, 27 ref.
AB: Tetrad-forming cocci were isolated from 17 kinds of fermented fish,
meat, vegetables, and other materials in Thailand. Out of 58 strains identified,
22 were Pediococcus pentosaceus, 2 were P. acidilactici, 26 were P. halophilus,
4 were other Pediococcus spp. and 4 were 'Tetracoccus' spp. They were
widely distributed in fermented products in Thailand, and play roles in
souring and ripening.
Record 109 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Handbook of tropical foods.
AU: Chan-HT Jr [Editor]
SO: viii + 639pp. ISBN 0-8247-1880-1, many ref.
AB: This book, which is No. 9 in the Food Science Monographs series, attempts
to unearth and collect the most recent and available knowledge on selected
tropical foods. Each chapter deals with a tropical crop or group of crops.
The information in each chapter is arranged under the following headings:
botanical description, origin and distribution, and economic and nutritional
significance; horticultural aspects (cultivation, harvesting and post
harvest handling); biochemical and nutritional composition; and preservation
methods (processing, products and uses, product spoilage, quality control).
Chapters included are: Amaranth, by O. L. Oke (pp. 1-28, 49 ref.). Aroid
root crops: Alocasia, Cyrtosperma, and Amorphophallus, by W. S. Sakai
(pp. 29-83, many ref.). Bananas and plantains, by J. Marriott & P.
A. Lancaster (pp. 85-143, many ref.). Cassava: production, processing,
and utilization, by E. U. Odigboh (pp. 145-200, 94 ref.). Citrus fruits,
by S. V. Ting (pp. 201-253, many ref.). Fermented fish products, by F.
Magno-Orejana (pp. 255-295, many ref.). Ginger, by R. E. Leverington (pp.
297-350, 90 ref.). Guava, by H. T. Chan, Jr. (pp. 351-359, 22 ref.). Macadamia
nuts, by C. G. Cavaletto (pp. 361-397, 57 ref.). Mango, by A. E. Stafford
(pp. 399-431, 96 ref.). Palm oil, by K. G. Berger (pp. 433-468, 62 ref.).
Papaya, by H. T. Chan, Jr. (pp. 469-488, 53 ref.). Rice in the tropics,
by A. P. Mossman (pp. 489-535, 81 ref.). Tropical fruit wines, by T. Nakayama
(pp. 537-553, 35 ref.). Yams, by D. G. Coursey (pp. 555-601, 97 ref.).
Record 110 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Amino acid composition of the major species of coastal fish from
Senegal, before and after artisanal preservation treatments.]
AU: Vanbelle-M; Moreau-I; Foulon-M; Vervack-W; Diouf-N; Faye-AA
SO: Revue-des-Fermentations-et-des-Industries-Alimentaires; 37 (1) 3-12,
AB: The main types of mussel, cartilaginous and teleost fish caught off
the Senegalese Coast are listed (with French, local and Latin names) and
artisanal preservation techniques are described. Tabulated data give amino
acid composition of: 13 fresh fish and 2 fresh molluscs; 8 types of fermented
fish; 10 fermented, dried fish; 3 smoked dried fish; 1 cooked and dried
fish; 1 salted, dried fish; 2 fermented, 1 fermented, dried or just dried
molluscs; and mean values for all fresh fish and all preserved fish. The
treatments used have only marginal effects on amino acid composition,
but total N contents are reduced by some treatments, especially braising,
smoking and drying.
Record 111 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Processing of manjuba (Anchoviella sp.) by fermentation.]
AU: Andrade-MO-de; Prado-Filho-LGdo
SO: Solo-; 73 (1) 51-59, 19 ref.
AB: A process was developed for the production of good quality fermented
fish using a small sea-water Anchoviella sp. Fish were fermented anaerobically
for 35 days in a spiced brine containing benzoic acid and sodium nitrite.
After fermentation, fish were eviscerated, filleted and packed in glass
jars with the addition of soybean oil. Fermentation of 6 kg lots was carried
out in 10 l plastic containers, a scale suitable for farm industry. Results
of chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses showed that the product
was of good quality.
Record 112 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Food microbiology: advances and prospects.
AU: Roberts-TA; Skinner-FA [Editors]
CA: United Kingdom, Society for Applied Bacteriology
SO: Society-for-Applied-Bacteriology-Symposium-Series; No. 11, xiv + 394pp.
ISBN 0-12-589670-0, many ref.
AB: [Continued from preceding abstr.] New prospects and problems in the
beverage industry, by F. W. Beech & R. R. Davenport (pp. 241-256,
85 ref.). Properties of and prospects for cultured dairy foods, by K.
M. Shahani & B. A. Friend (pp. 257-269, 33 ref.). Fermented fish and
meat products: the present position and future possibilities, by I. Erichsen
(pp. 271-286, 49 ref.). Genetic engineering for food and additives, by
J. R. Pellon & A. J. Sinskey (pp. 286-300, 22 ref.). The potential
for fermentation processes in the food supply, by D. C. Bull & G.
L. Solomons (pp. 301-308, 3 ref.). Sampling programmes for the microbiological
analysis of food, by D. C. Kilsby & A. C. Baird-Parker (pp. 309-315,
6 ref.). Guidelines, specifications and standards for foods, by B. Simonsen
(pp. 317-331, 9 ref.). Food microbiology into the twenty-first century
- a Delphi forecast, by B. Jarvis (pp. 333-367, 15 ref.). Abstracts of
22 papers and posters included in the summer conference are also presented
(pp. 369-380), and a 14pp. subject index is given.
Record 113 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Safety evaluation of fermented fish and shellfish products. II. Physical
AU: Mabesa-RC; Castillo-MM; Bandian-VT
SO: Philippine-Journal-of-Science; 112 (1/2) 103-108, 4 ref.
AB: Fermented fish and shellfish products collected from different regions
of the Philippines from Dec. 1980 to Dec. 1981 were analysed microscopically
for physical contaminants. The most common items found were seaweed parts
and stones. Insect parts and leaf stems ranked next while scraps and hair
were occasionally detected. [See preceding abstr. for part I.]
Record 114 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Safety evaluation of fermented fish and shellfish products. I. Microbiological
AU: Mabesa-RC; Castillo-MM; Revilla-SV; Bandian-VT
SO: Philippine-Journal-of-Science; 112 (1/2) 91-102, 13 ref.
AB: Total plate counts and specific tests for indicator organisms were
performed on fermented fish and shellfish samples collected from different
regions of the Philippines from Dec. 1980 to Dec. 1981. Microorganisms
of public health significance detected and enumerated were faecal coliforms,
staphylococci, salmonellae and vibrios. Coliforms predominated in many
of the samples, staphylococci occurred moderately, while salmonellae and
vibrios were only occasionally detected. Samples from the Bicol and Visayas
region were grossly contaminated while those from Northern Luzon were
Record 115 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Chemical characterization and sensory evaluation of dietary sodium-potassium
AU: Chayovan-S; Rao-RM; Liuzzo-JA; Khan-MA
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 31 (4) 859-863, 38 ref.
AB: Uneviscerated ground fish (flounder and trout with 1.6 and 9.2% fat,
resp.) were fermented in a mixture of sodium and potassium salts in different
fish to salt ratios. Desired ratios of these salts in the fermented fish
sauce were obtained by mixing appropriate vol. of individual salt-based
sauce. Chemical analyses included total and ammonia N, salt, pH, carbonyls,
amines, and amino acids. In all sauce samples mumol/l concn. of carbonyls
such as butanal, octanol, 2,4-decadienal, 2-undecenal, tetradecanal and
amines (mono-, di-, and trimethylamine) were obtained. Amino acids such
as lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid and threonine ranged in
concn. between 10---4 and 10---3 mmol/l of sauce. The pH of sauce made
from flounder and trout ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 and 4.9 to 5.6, resp. Sensory
analyses indicated that a mixture of NaCl and KCl (NaCl:KCl = 50:50) could
act as replacement for NaCl generally used in fish sauce fermentation.
Record 116 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Bacteriology of fermented fish.]
AU: Kandji-P; Conway-J
SO: FAO-Fisheries-Report; No. 268 (Suppl.), 84-93, 8 ref.
AB: The microbial flora of 'guedj' (dried fermented fish produced in Senegal)
was studied from the fresh fish to the finished product. Tabulated data
show the bacteriological quality of sea water, freshly landed fish, and
guedj from artisanal production, as well as the lactic flora. The main
organisms on fresh fish were mesophilic, psychrotropic and acidophilic
aerobes (10-7, 10-6 and 10-6/g resp.), replaced during fermentation by
lactic bacteria, chiefly Lactobacillus plantarum. Total count on artisanal
guedj was 10 000/g with no coliforms, salmonella or pathogenic staphylococci,
and less than 10/g of faecal streptococci and sulphite-reducing clostridia.
When produced under a solar tent, a hard crust is formed on the outside
of the fish which reduces permeability and gas exchange between fish muscle
and the atm. This creates anaerobic conditions and decomposition of the
flesh, as well as changes in flavour. [See FSTA (1983) 15 11R741.]
Record 117 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Fish handling, preservation and processing in the tropics. II.
SO: Report,-Tropical-Products-Institute; G145, vii + 144pp. ISBN 0-85954-126-6,
AB: This report is the second of 2 reports [see FSTA (1982) 14 6R391 for
TPI Report G144] which together present 52 lectures for an 8-wk training
course suited to people working at middle-management level in both Government
and Industry. The information is arranged under the following headings:
Salting of fish: salt (pp. 4-6). Salting of fish: methods (pp. 7-8, 3
ref.). Drying of fish: basic principles (pp. 9-10). Drying of fish: methods
(pp. 11-12). Smoking of fish (pp. 13-14). Marinades (pp. 15-17). Fermented
fish products: a review (pp. 18-22). Boiled fish products (pp. 23-25).
Fish canning: theory and practice (pp. 26-37). Freeze-drying (pp. 38-41).
Irradiation (pp. 42-47, 3 ref.). Miscellaneous products: crustaceans (pp.
48-52). Miscellaneous aquatic products used as food (pp. 53-55) including
frog legs, molluscs, sea cucumbers, fish roes, and turtles. Food by-products
(pp. 56-57, 2 ref.) including shark fins, fish entrails, and fish extract.
Non-food by-products (pp. 58-64) including fish body oils, fish liver
oils, fish skins and scales, fish albumin, swim bladders and turtle products.
New and delicatessen products (pp. 65-70, 2 ref.) including fish minces,
fish sausage (frying sausage, slicing sausage, Frankfurter sausage, kamaboko,
tuna ham), fish balls, fish 'crisps'. Fish meal (pp. 71-77). Fish silage
(pp. 78-80). Chemical and physical methods of quality assessment (pp.
81-87, 10 ref.). Organoleptic (sensory) measurement of spoilage (pp. 88-93,
6 ref.). Microbiology of spoilage (pp. 94-97). Microbiology of fish spoilage
(pp. 98-100). Public health microbiology (pp. 101-103). International
standards for fisheries products (pp. 104-109, 16 ref.). Large-scale fish
landing facilities (pp. 110-114). Small-scale landing facilities: design
and operation (pp. 115-119). Retail sale facilities (pp. 120-126). Fisheries
extension services: their role in rural development (pp. 127-137, 10 ref.).
Training in the field (pp. 138-142, 1 ref.). An appendix lists films shown
during the course.
Record 118 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Flavor of fermented fish sauce.
AU: McIver-RC; Brooks-RI; Reineccius-GA
SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 30 (6) 1017-1020, 16 ref.
AB: Volatile flavour components were studied in commercial Nam-pla, a
Thai sauce made from fermenting salted fish for 6-12 months. The sauce
was adjusted to pH 2.0 and extracted with diethyl ether to obtain an aqueous
layer and an ether layer; the basic fraction was obtained from the aqueous
layer and the neutral and acidic fractions were obtained from the other
layer by pH adjustment and further ether extraction. Each fraction was
examined by GLC on a Carbowax 20M column, and by GLC-MS. Eight acids and
1 lactone constituted 96% of the acidic fraction. The acidic fraction
possessed a sharp, cheesy aroma. The neutral fraction possessed a meaty
aroma and contained 3 lactones as main components, as well as alcohols
and heterocyclic compounds; the only aldehyde identified was benzaldehyde.
The aroma of the basic fraction was dominated by ammonia and trimethylamine,
which, together with dimethylamine and 2,3-butanediol, constituted the
major components. In total, 43 compounds were identified that have not
previously been reported as constituents of fish sauce, including 8 acids,
10 alcohols, 6 amines, 7 other N-containing compounds, 4 lactones, 3 carbonyls
and 5 S-containing compounds. [See FSTA (1983) 15 7A403.]
Record 119 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Fifth Brazilian Congress on food science and technology.] V Congresso
Brasileiro de ciencia e tecnologia de alimentos.
CA: Brazil, Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos
AB: [Continued from preceding abstr.] Production of a dry salted shark
product containing maize flour and seasonings, by D. A. Barrera &
E. J. Geromel (p. 66). Manufacture of cheese from dried milk and butter
oil by ultrafiltration, by S. D. A. Vieira (p. 67). Standardization of
the fat and defatted dry extract contents of buffalo milk with reconstituted
milk, by S. D. A. Vieira & B. S. Neves (p. 68). Apparent seasonal
changes in various milk constituents at the start of spring, by E. C.
dos Santos, A. T. V. Xavier & L. A. S. dos Passos (p. 69). Hygroscopicity
of freeze-dried tropical fruit, by A. W. O. Lima, V. A. Gois & J.
Cal-Vidal (p. 70). Evaluation of hygroscopicity of dried fruit and vegetables,
by J. Cal-Vidal (p. 71). Chemical treatment of [microbially] contaminated
vegetables, by R. Baruffaldi, T. C. Penna, I. A. Machoshvhili & L.
E. Abe (p. 72). Effects of storage under ambient conditions on the quality
of carrots, by R. Baruffaldi, T. C. V. Penna, A. J. Colombo & R. N.
Pitombo (p. 73). Experimental and theoretical determination of thermal
diffusivity characteristics of carrots, by G. F. Leonhardt, T. C. V. Penna,
R. Baruffaldi & A. J. Colombo (p. 74). Osmotic drying of bananas,
by R. R. J. Vahideh & N. Narain (p. 75). Effect of enzyme treatment
on juice yield from bananas, by N. Narrain & P. S. Bora (p. 76). Production
of concentrated cashew fruit juice, by R. Vieira, M. L. Woolfe, E. M.
F. Pires, J. A. Woolfe & N. B. Guerra (p. 77). Industrial use of guava
in the form of conserves, by N. B. Guerro, E. M. F. Pires, Z. M. C. de
Oliveira, C. P. de Freitas & L. Abramov (p. 78). Scanning electron
microscopy studies on starch granules of red kidney beans and bean sprouts,
by H. C. Silva & B. S. Luh (p. 79). Behaviour of free amino acids
in fermented fish, by L. Sanchez & U. A. Lima (p. 80). Feasibility
of preservation of the fish Curimatus elegans by fermentation, by L. Sanchez
& U. A. Lima (p. 81-82). Low-cost protein concentrates from water
hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), by M. O. de Andrade, U. A. Lima &
A. C. R. Goncalves (p. 83). [Continued in following abstr.]
Record 120 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Bacteriophages of Halobacterium halobium: isolation from fermented
fish sauce and primary characterization.
SO: Canadian-Journal-of-Microbiology; 28 (8) 916-921, 15 ref.
Record 121 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Indigenous fermented foods.
SO: Economic-Microbiology; 7, 15-38, 67 ref.
AB: Some aspects of indigenous fermented foods, many of which are almost
unknown outside the Orient, are reviewed, with special attention given
to the microorganisms and their role in the fermentation process. The
indigenous fermented foods are reviewed according to the microorganisms
involved in the process. The best known foods fermented by moulds are
tempe (from soybeans), oncom (from peanut presscake) and angkak (from
rice). Foods fermented by bacteria include fermented vegetable products,
fermented fish products (sauces and pastes), fermented seeds (natto und
thua-nao from soybeans, dage from oil-rich seeds), fermented starch-rich
raw materials (e.g. banku, kenkey, akpler, ogi and agidi from fermented
maize, idli, dosa, appam and puto from rice, and gari from cassava), and
fermented plant juice (palm wine, and pulque from agave). Foods fermented
by a mixture of moulds and yeasts, e.g. using ragi inoculum, include fermented
rice, brem (confectionery), rice wine, and tape-ketella (from cassava).
Foods firstly fermented by moulds, followed by a fermentation with a mixture
of bacteria and yeasts, include soy sauce (shoyu) and other fermented
soybean products, e.g. miso, taoco, hamanatto, and tou-chih. Specific
aspects of fermented foods, i.e. mould spp., lactic acid bacteria, yeasts
and salt, are also discussed. [See FSTA (1983) 15 3G155.]
Record 122 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Beriberi caused by antithiamin factors in food and its prevention.
AU: Vimokesant-S; Kunjara-S; Rungruangsak-K; Nakornchai-S; Panijpan-B
SO: Annals-of-the-New-York-Academy-of-Sciences; 378, 123-136, 20 ref.
AB: Previous reports on the antithiamin activity (ATA) of various polyphenolic
compounds in plants and of thiaminase in raw fish led to a study of the
effect of local foods containing ATA on the thiamin status of local Thai
people. In northern Thailand, fermented tea leaves are chewed continuously
as a stimulant, tea drinking is common, the diet contains large amounts
of glutinous rice, raw fermented fish, and vegetables, and betel nut chewing
is common. These foods were collected and assayed for ATA, and experiments
were carried out with human volunteers to study the effects of these foods
on thiamin status, as determined by thiamin pyrophosphate effect (TPPE);
results are shown in tables, histograms etc. It is said that 1 g dry tea
leaves brewed in 100 ml boiling water for 5 min destroyed 0.21 mg thiamin/h,
fermented tea leaves (daily intake approx. 12 g) destroyed 0.93 mg thiamin
per g wet wt./h, extract from betel nut chew (average intake 21 g/day)
destroyed 0.83 mg thiamin per g wet wt./h, and thiaminase activity of
raw fermented fish (consumption approx. 50 g/day) was estimated to contain
4.5 units/g. The data obtained suggest that antithiamin factors in foods
could be a precipitating factor in causing thiamin deficiency in humans.
However cooking will inactivate thiaminase, and high TPPE resulting from
consumption of polyphenols such as tannins could possibly be prevented
by delay in the consumption of these compounds after meals or consuming
foods high in ascorbic acid along with the meals.
Record 123 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Symposium on coastal aquaculture.
CA: India, Marine Biological Association of India
SO: vi + 185pp.
AB: Abstracts are given of papers presented at the MBAI Symposium on coastal
aquaculture, held in Cochin, India, on 12-18 Jan. 1980. One of the technical
sessions dealt with Post-harvest technology and utilization (pp. 169-177).
Individual papers include the following. Diversification of fishery products,
by N. K. Velankar (pp. 169-170). Development of fish products from low
priced fish, by K. Gopakumar & M. R. Nair (p. 170). Canning of edible
oysters, by M. Rajendra Badonia (p. 171). A plan for the purification
system for farm grown oysters before marketing, by K. Nagappan Nayar,
M. E. Rajapandian & D. C. V. Easterson (p. 171). Preliminary studies
on preservation and transportation of green mussel Perna viridis, by K.
K. Balachandran & P. V. Prabhu (p. 172). Bacteriological status of
fresh fish at Veraval, by H. K. Beri (pp. 172-173). Heterotrophic bacteria
associated with seaweed, by P. Lakshmanaperumalsamy & A. Purushothaman
(p. 173). The bacterial flora of pearlspot Etroplus suratensis caught
from Cochin backwaters, by P. K. Surendran & K. Mahadeva Iyer (pp.
173-174). Bacterial flora in the alimentary canal of Rastrelliger kanagurta
(Cuvier), by E. Jeyaseeli Fatima, P. Lakshmanaperumalsamy, D. Chandramohan
& R. Natarajn (p. 174). PCBs and pesticides content in cultured cockles
in the State of Penang, Malaysia, by P. M. Sivalingam, I. Allapitchay,
H. Kojima & T. Yoshida (pp. 174-175). Mixed culture fermentation as
a predominant biological phenomenon in the production of fermented fish
products, by D. Damodaran Nambudiry (p. 176). Studies on transportation
of Chanos chanos, by C. C. Panduranga Rao, T. K. Govindan, S. S. Gupta
& D. Imam Khasim Saheb (pp. 176-177). A further 3 papers are abstracted
separately [see following 3 abstr.].
Record 124 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Lessons from the past for better future utilization of fish resources.
SO: Nestle-Research-News; 1978/1979, 41-49, 19 ref.
AB: Some of the processes developed for preserving fish and for utilizing
fish resources more efficiently are described. Aspects discussed are the
historical uses of fish in Assyria, Egypt, Greece, Rome, Europe, America
and Africa; nutrition and taboo; and different ways of preserving fish,
including fermented fish sauces and pastes (patis and bagoong, nuoc-mam,
budu), non-fermented fish paste (surimi, krill paste, lobster extract),
fish protein concentrate, fish protein isolate, and spun fish fibres.
The use of electrofocusing for the effective identification of fish spp.
and to detect the presence of whiting in cod mince is mentioned. Future
prospects, including the possibility of applying some of the expertise
in processing milk and dairy products to the processing of fish, are also
Record 125 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Vitamin B12 in serum, some Thai foods and vitamin B12 absorption
AU: Areekul-S; Thearawibul-R; Chantachum-Y; Viravan-C
SO: Journal-of-the-National-Research-Council-of-Thailand; 11 (1) 1-11,
AB: Vitamin B12 contents were determined in some Thai foods, including
fish sauce, soy sauce and fermented fish, and in serum of patients with
infectious hepatitis, hookworm, amoebic liver abscess, opisthorchis and
malaria infection. The results were compared with those of normal subjects.
The absorption of vitamin B12 was also determined in some patients, using
-5-8Co vitamin B12. The results showed that some patients in the present
studies had lower serum vitamin B12 levels and lower absorption of this
vitamin than those of the normal subjects. However, they did not show
any signs or symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. This could be due to
the findings that the normal Thai diets, including fish sauce and fermented
fish, contained a considerable amount of vitamin B12 and the stored vitamin
B12 in the liver could last for 3-4 yr.
Record 126 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: The production of soluble fish protein solution for use in fish sauce
manufacture. I. The use of added enzymes.
AU: Beddows-CG; Ardeshir-AG
SO: Journal-of-Food-Technology; 14 (6) 603-612, 11 ref.
AB: Production of a fish hydrolysate, using plant proteases, which could
be added to traditionally fermented fish sauce to increase the total vol.
without affecting the overall nutritional quality was investigated. Effect
of adding bromelain, papain or ficin, on the rate of hydrolysis and the
extent of the conversion of insoluble fish protein, to soluble N was examined.
The conditions employed were similar to those used in traditional fish
sauce manufacture but both whole and minced Ikanbilis (Stolephorus sp.)
were investigated. Measurement of the extent of hydrolysis after 1, 2,
4, 7, 14, 27, 28 and 35 days at 33 degree C showed that bromelain tended
to give slightly better results with some 65% of the protein being hydrolysed.
The effect of temp., enzyme, co-enzyme and salt concn. for hydrolysis
by bromelain were investigated and the optimum conditions established
at the pH normally found in fish sauce production. The hydrolysate produced
in 18-21 days was comparable to traditional fish sauce in distribution
and concn. of N compounds and had very little aroma. The product could
be added to traditional sauce without affecting its quality. [See preceding
abstr. for part II.]
Record 127 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: The production of soluble fish protein solution for use in fish sauce
manufacture. II. The use of acids at ambient temperature.
AU: Beddows-CG; Ardeshir-AG
SO: Journal-of-Food-Technology; 14 (6) 613-623, 10 ref.
AB: When batches of Ikanbilis were acidified using HCl to pH 2.0-3.5 at
30 degree C, rate and extent of hydrolysis of the fish protein and rate
of formation of supernatant liquor were increased. Effect of pH and salt
concn. was investigated. Although the presence of salt generally decreased
extent of proteolysis, it made the mixtures easier to filter. The optimum
conditions were either pH 2.0 and 10% salt (w/w) or pH 3.0 and 15% salt
(w/w). The extent of fish protein hydrolysed was comparable to the natural
fermentation and concn. and distribution of soluble N were very similar
to those obtained in the traditionally produced sauces. This liquor was
produced within 6 days. The natural fermentation takes 4-9 months. Use
of formic acid was investigated and showed no particular advantage. When
the pH of the acid ensiled mixtures was adjusted above 4.2, calcium phosphate
precipitated; this was removed by filtration. Effect of adding alkaline
ensiled fish to acid ensiled fish mixtures (the pH of which had been re-adjusted)
was investigated. The amount of insoluble protein hydrolysed increased
to a limited extent. As the solutions produced by acid ensilation had
very little aroma or taste but had a high soluble N content, they could
be used to add to traditionally prepared fish sauce in order to increase
the net vol. which would increase the rate of production. [See following
abstr. for part I.]
Record 128 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Biochemical changes occurring during the manufacture of budu.
AU: Beddows-CG; Ardeshir-AG; Johari-bin-Daud-W
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 30 (11) 1097-1103,
AB: Production of budu, a Malaysian fermented fish sauce was investigated
using laboratory-scale fermentation using frozen fresh fish (Stolephorus
sp.) and on a commercial scale using fish that had been stored several
h at greater than 30 degree C (ambient temp.). Fish or fish macerate was
salted and incubated in a humid atm at 30 degree C for 200 days. Max.
vol. of supernatant liquor was produced at 140 days; residue was chiefly
bone and scales. N solubilization increased with time to a max. of 56%
at 200 days; most was complete at 120-130 days. Inclusion of the antibiotic
rifampicin showed that the process was independent of any bacteria in
the fish. Peptide bonds continued to be hydrolysed in the liquor in the
140-200 day period when liquor vol. did not increase. Supernatant liquor
became brown after 60 days and subsequently darkened. Small-scale and
commercial processes produced similar (except for volatile acid content)
sauces with a cheesy aroma. The final sauce had a pH of 5.6, was saturated
with NaCl, contained 1.77% organic N and 0.12% volatile N. 66% of organic
N was as amino acids; 75% of volatile N was NH3, the remainder was mainly
trimethylamine. Commercially produced budu contained volatile fatty acids,
which were present probably as a result of bacterial action prior to salting
of fish. Final commercial sauce contained (mg/cm-3) ethanoic 2.1, propanoic
0.12, and n-butanoic acid 0.23. Concn. of the latter 2 acids did not increase
during fermentation; concn. of ethanoic acid increased from 1.29 mg/cm-3
initially to a max. of 2.15 after 156 days.
Record 129 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Amines in fermented fish paste.
AU: Fardiaz-D; Markakis-P
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science; 44 (5) 1562-1563, 12 ref.
AB: A total of 6 brands of commercial fermented fish paste, representing
anchovy, shrimp, prawn and oyster products, was studied for amine content.
An ether extract of the paste was treated with trifluoroacetic anhydride
to form the N-trifluoroacetyl derivatives of the amines which were analysed
by GLC using a column packed with Supelcoport 100/200 mesh coated with
3% SP-2100 using flame ionization detection. Each product showed 7-17
peaks on the chromatograph. 9 amines were tentatively identified on the
basis of their retention times, and concn. of these 9 in the 6 products
are tabulated, together with concn. of histamine determined by fluorometry.
Amines found, in order of highest max. concn., were histamine (64 mg/100
g), 2-phenylethylamine (60 mg/100 g), tyramine (37), dopamine (30), tryptamine
(16), ethanolamine (10), octopamine (5), 2-mercaptoethylamine (3.5), cadaverine
(3.5) and 2-methylbutylamine (1.3). There were wide variations in concn.
of individual amines between pastes, and only histamine was found in all
products. Fermented prawn paste had the highest concn. of total amines
(227.6 mg/100 g) and fermented oyster paste the lowest (16.3 mg/100 g).
Record 130 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Reactivation mechanisms of thiamine with thermostable factors.
AU: Murata-K; Yamaoka-M; Ichikawa-A
SO: Journal-of-Nutritional-Science-and-Vitaminology; 22 (suppl.) 7-12,
AB: Studies on thermostable thiamin-inactivating factors in foods are
discussed. Thiamin inactivating activities of black tea and of fermented
fish were lower than those of fern leaf and shellfish respectively. Thiamin
inactivation activity and thiamin disulphide formation by various flavones,
catechol, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, dihydroxyphenylalanine, haemin, and
flavonoids are discussed. Thiamin inactivation activities of extracts
of 'shiitake' mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), carrots, coffee, black tea,
okra and butter flower (Pentasite japonicus) stalk were small. 2-methyl-4-amino-5-aminomethylpyrimidine
was formed during reaction of thiamin with catechol. [See FSTA (1977)
Record 131 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Food habits causing thiamine deficiency in humans.
AU: Vimokesant-S; Nakornchai-S; Rungruangsak-K; Dhanamitta-S; Hilker-DM
SO: Journal-of-Nutritional-Science-and-Vitaminology; 22 (suppl.) 1-2,
AB: Dietary habits possibly responsible for thiamin deficiency in Thailand
are discussed, with reference to data for anti-thiamin activity of tea,
raw fermented fish, betel nuts and vegetables. The results suggest that
consumption of foods containing anti-thiamin factors may be responsible
for the widespread thiamin deficiency in some regions of Thailand. [See
FSTA (1977) 9 6A408.]
Record 132 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Identification of neutral and basic flavor compounds in fermented
AU: Brooks-RI; Reineccius-GA
SO: Abstracts-of-Papers,-American-Chemical-Society; 172, AGFD 158
AB: Traditional methods of producing fish sauce involve several months
of fermentation. Several attempts have been made to accelerate the process
but products obtained by accelerated techniques generally have a poor
flavour. An attempt was made to identify the volatile neutral and basic
flavour compounds of traditionally produced Southeast Asian fish sauce.
Neutral and basic fractions were isolated by direct solvent extraction
with dichloromethane. Both fractions were analysed by gas chromatography
and MS using Carbowax 20M columns. Analysis also included splitting the
column effluent and sniffing components as they eluted from the column.
Methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, 2-methyl pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl
pyrazine, hydroxyvaleric acid lactone and phenol have been identified
to date. Lactones quantitatively dominated the flavour profiles, accounting
for greater than 75% of the volatiles in the combined neutral and basic
Record 133 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Sorbic acid as a food preservative.
SO: International-Flavours-and-Food-Additives; 7 (3) 122-124, 127, 1 ref.
AB: The topic is reviewed under the following headings: history; properties;
derivatives; manufacture; analysis; physiological properties; effect in
countering microorganisms; and practical uses (including edible fat emulsions,
cheese, meat and fish, fermented vegetables, pickled vegetables, tomato
products, dried fruit, fruit juices and fruit syrups, drinks, fruit preserves,
bakery goods, sugar and sugar confectionery, and packaging materials).
Record 134 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: The use of bromelain in the hydrolysis of mackerel and the investigation
of fermented fish aroma.
AU: Beddows-CG; Ismail-M; Steinkraus-KH
SO: Journal-of-Food-Technology; 11 (4) 379-388, 14 ref.
AB: A fish hydrolysate was produced from homogenized mackerel using bromelain
to increase the rate and extent of proteolysis. Measurement of the extent
of hydrolysis and conversion of insoluble to soluble N compounds after
1, 2, 3, 5 and 14 days of incubation at 38 degree C showed that a hydrolysate
having some of the characteristics of an oriental fish sauce could be
formed from mackerel within this period with a net protein conversion
rate of over 75%, but it was necessary to include a 24 h incubation period
prior to the addition of salt. The technique was used for the investigation
of the causative agents of aroma production in the mackerel homogenate.
Assuming that the proteolysis was still carried out by the protease, the
mackerel homogenate was subjected to heat treatment, or mixed with antibiotics,
or TCA prior to addition of bromelain. These treatments caused the loss
of some of the constituents (associated with oriental fish sauce aroma)
which suggests that with mackerel, micro-organisms play a significant
role in aroma development. The method could be used for the investigation
of sauces prepared from oriental fish; as the causative agents of aroma
production might well be different. The bacteria involved with mackerel
could easily produce harmful products which were not investigated.
Record 135 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Studies on the fermentation of fish protein. I. A model design of
AU: Lee-KH; Choi-HY
SO: Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-and-Nutrition; 1 (1) 51-62,
AB: To improve the quality of fermented fish, which are important preserved
and seasoned food products, a model fermentor with control devices for
temp., pH and agitation was designed. The design gives optimum conditions
for enzymic hydrolysis of fish protein as regards temp., pH, viscosity
and other factors.
Record 136 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Some flavouring constituents of fermented fish sauces.
AU: Dougan-J; Howard-GE
SO: Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture; 26 (7) 887-894, 12
AB: The aroma of fermented fish sauce comprises 3 distinct notes, cheesy,
meaty and ammoniacal. Analysis showed that the cheesy odour was produced
by lower fatty acids and the ammoniacal odour by ammonia and amines. The
meaty aroma was much more complicated and was not analysed, but it was
shown that it could be produced by atmospheric oxidation of precursors
that were still present in mature sauces. Individual fatty acids were
determined in sauce at various stages of fermentation and an hypothesis
explaining the origin of the acids is deduced from the results.
Record 137 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Microflora of four fermented fish sauces.
AU: Crisan-EV; Sands-A
SO: Applied-Microbiology; 29 (1) 106-108, 13 ref.
AB: 39 microorganisms representing 11 spp. of bacteria [mainly Bacillus
spp.], 1 yeast, and 3 filamentous fungi were isolated and identified from
4 fermented fish sauces: nampla, patis, koami, and ounago.
Record 138 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Food science in developing countries: a selection of unsolved problems.
CA: United States of America, National Academy of Sciences; United States
of America, National Research Council
SO: 79pp., many ref.
AB: [Continued from preceding abstr.] Food processing (High cost of packaging
thermally processed food (pp. 21-23, 5 ref.); Indigenous sources of enzymes
for more rapid fermentation of fish (pp. 23-25, 4 ref.); Cooking quality
of stored beans (pp. 25-26, 5 ref.); Storage for food products of plant
origin (pp. 27-28, 4 ref.); Processing fermented fish products (pp. 28-29,
4 ref.); Separating coconut oil and protein by fermentation (pp. 30-31,
2 ref.); Keeping qualities of buffalo milk and its processed products
(pp. 32-33, 2 ref.); Salt for preservation purposes (pp. 33-34, 2 ref.);
Milling quinua seeds (pp. 34-36, 8 ref.); Ageing of starchy products (pp.
36-39, 13 ref.); Increased use of red palm oil (pp. 39-40, 6 ref.]; Food
composition (Factors governing texture and softness of fermented foods
in India (pp. 41-42, 2 ref.); Evaluating useful properties of proteins,
polysaccharides, and lipids of cereals and legumes (pp. 42-43, 4 ref.);
Fat composition of fried foods in India (pp. 44-45, 3 ref); Trace elements
in animal feeds (pp. 45-57, 15 ref.); Biochemical factors limiting the
use of legume grains (pp. 47-48, 3 ref.); [Continued in following abstr.]
Record 139 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Fermented sea foods.]
SO: Przemysl-Spozywczy; 28 (2) 59-62, 17 ref.
AB: This review deals with European fermented fish products; fermented
fish and other sea-food products of south-eastern Asia; methods of fish
fermentation; microbiological and enzyme aspects of fish fermentation;
nutritive value of fermented fish; and possibility of developing manufacture
of fermented fish products in Europe.
Record 140 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Fermented fish products and botulism.]
SO: Norsk-Veterinaertidsskrift; 86 (7/8) 350-353, 31 ref.
AB: After a brief description of various fermented fish products (the
Norwegion 'rakefisk' and 'boknafisk' and the Japanese 'izushi', 'biribosni'
and 'kombaki') with special reference to their implication in outbreaks
of botutism, the manufacture of rakefisk is discussed on the basis of
literature data. Aspects considered include quantities of salt required,
maturation and storage temp., and the relative importance of microbial
and autolytic fermentation. It is suggested that maturation and storage
at temp. less than2 degree C is desirable, to prevent growth and toxin
production by Clostridium botulinum.
Record 141 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: A new product from Stavrida.
AU: Heikal-HA; El-Dashlouty-MS
SO: Agricultural-Research-Review; 50 (4) 229-233, 5 ref.
AB: A study was made of the production of a new salted, fermented fish
product, similar to 'Fesikh' in taste and flavour, but using the cheap
fish Stavrida rather than the usual Bori. The fish are left for 24 h in
the shade and as soon as the fish body is swollen dry salting is carried
out, the product is then left to ferment for 6-9 days. It was concluded
that Fesikh prepared using Stavrida was similar to the traditional Fesikh
in texture and flavour, and was cheaper to produce and gave a higher yield
than when using Bori. The slighly lower water holding capacity of Fesikh
prepared from Stavrida resulted in it having a slightly longer storage
life than the traditional product.
Record 142 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: The nutritive value of Thai fish products. I. The vitamin content.
SO: Fiskeridirektoratets-Skrifter-Serie-Teknologiske-Undersokelser; 5
(7) 11pp., 18 ref.
AB: The contents of B-vitamins in 19 samples of Thai fish products bought
at the market in Bangkok were determined microbiologically. The contents
(mu/g) of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, pantothenic
acid and biotin were respectively: dried snake-head 2.4, 2.03, 51.4, 0.036,
-, 16.5, 0.021; dried squid 0.4, 0.90, 65.7, 0.084, 0.66, 9.5, 0.115;
boiled dried shrimp 0.9, 0.97, 33.7, 0.05, 0.3, 6.16, 0.093; boiled dried
mussel 0.3, 6.88, 19.6, 0.37, 2.5, 7.54, 0.26; salted dried pla tu -,
1.73, 74.2, 0.06, 0.57, 3.71, 0.053; salted dried mackerel 0.4, 1.92,
101.0, 0.032, 1.56, 4.41, 0.040; salted dried threadfin 0.9, 2.57, 53.6,
0.067, 1.06, 5.88, 0.040; salted dried pla slid 0.6, 6.63, 27.7, 0.027,
0.61, 18.6, 0.125; salted dried leatherskin 0.5, 1.50, 46.4, 0.04, 0.87,
4.17, 0.051; salted dried carp 0.1, 1.57, 38.6, 0.096, 1.02, 20.4, 0.082;
salted dried ray, 1.6, 1.39, 89.3, 0.053, 1.89, 10.2, 0.059; salted dried
anchovy 0.1, 1.10, 23.1, 0.11, 0.6, 10.2, 0.145; salted dried mullet 0.1,
3.45, 38.5, 0.10, 0.56, 10.6, 0.068; smoked catfish 0.1, 1.92, 65.5, 0.15,
0.59, 17.7, 0.102; smoked featherback 0.3, 1.72, 34.3, 0.029, 1.49, 25.3,
0.056; seasoned dried catfish 3.6, 1.52, 96.4, 0.027, 1.35, 8.60, 0.033;
fermented pla ra -, 0.99, 6.4, 0.023, 0.4, 2.25, 0.016; fermented nam
pla, traces, 0.67, 43.9, 0.015, 0.95, 3.30, 0.039; fermented kapi 0.1,
1.73, 24.7, 0.052, 0.5, 10.1, 0.105.
Record 143 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: [Growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum type E in 'rakefisk'
at various temperatures.]
AU: Tjaberg-TB; Ystgaard-OM; Skulberg-A
SO: Medlemsblad-for-den-Norske-Veterinaerforening; 21 (9) 479-481, 4 ref.
AB: Rakefisk is a fermented fish product, which is made by salting fish,
generally trout or salmonoid-type, and allowing it to ferment naturally.
This type of product, which is eaten without heating, had given rise to
a number of cases of botulism in Norway. In experiments carried out to
determine the effect of fermentation temp. on Cl. botulinum type E (Fredriksberk),
trout in a brine containing 6% NaCl were infected with 1 x 10-6 spores/g
and fermented at temp. between -2 degree and +25 degree C. No toxin
was produced at less than4 degree C, which is therefore recommended as
the fermentation temp. for production of rakefisk.
Record 144 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Fish protein.
SO: Wenner-Gren-Center-International-Symposium-Series; 14: 55-76, Numerous
Record 145 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Notes on fish and shellfish.
SO: Canning-and-Packing; 39 (466) 5
AB: Production of salted fish, fermented squid, fish sausage and various
other fish products in Japan is briefly considered.
Record 146 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Lactic acid bacterial fermentation of burong dalag.
AU: Orillo-CA; Pederson-CS
SO: Applied-Microbiology; 16 (11) 1669-71, 3 ref.
AB: Two preparations of burong dalag, a fermented fish and rice food of
the Filipinos, were examined microbiologically and chemically. The lactic
acid fermentation was accomplished by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus
cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus plantarum, although strains of Streptococcus
faecalis and micrococci were also present in the first few days. The pH
was lowered to less than 4.0, and approximate equal to0-9% lactic acid
was attained in 1 wk. Careful sealing of the surface of the fermentation
mixture (79.5% moisture), was necessary to prevent growth of moulds and
Record 147 of 147 in FSTA Retrospective 1969-1989
TI: Preventing Clostridium botulinum type E /poisoning ; fat rancidity/
by silage fermentation.
SO: Lantbrukshoegskolans-Annaler; 34 (6) 551-689, Numerous ref.
AB: The following investigations were made in studying development of
Clostridium botulinum type E (i) in fish silage: production of pure spores
in trypticase-peptone-glucose medium; effect of fish silage on enumeration
methods and assay of (i) toxin; enumeration of (i) and toxin analysis
in freshly made and fermented fish silage inoculated with (i). Sporulation
of (i) was 40-60%. Counts of (i) were slightly affected by inclusion of
fish silage in suphite-polymyxin-sulphadiazene agar. Inocula of (i) were
destroyed during fermentation if added at the ensiling stage, while (i)
added to fermented silage remained viable after 40 days' incubation. Silage
was toxic when inoculated with greater than 10-6 pure spores/g of silage.
Lactobacillus brevis and Streptococcus faecalis were amongst the organisms
interacting with (i) in fish silage. Determinations were made of degree
and development of fat rancidity in moist and air-dried silage. Fat rancidity
did not occur in moist silage, but drying in air at 50 degree C produced
a rancid smell.
Tue Oct 8 08:35:01 2002
Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
Database: ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts
Query: (fermented fish)